AND SCIENCE: ALL THINGS IN PAIR
Dr. Ibrahim B. Syed
Professor of Medicine
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Louisville, KY 40292
President, Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc
7102 W. Shefford Lane
Louisville, KY 40242-6462
Islam is a religion of
truth and it is a rational religion. The Glorious Qur'an denounces irrational
religion as religion evidently false. Again and again the Qur'an urges men to
use their reason, to ponder and to reflect. While the West thinks there is conflict
between religion and science, but for Muslims there is no conflict between Islam
and Science. According to Dr. George Sarton, former Professor of History of
Science at Harvard University Islam is responsible for the meteoric rise of
sciences during the middle ages while Europeans lived in the dark ages. This
is because both the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad (S.A.S) extolled the Muslims
to learn, to seek education and knowledge. In Islam there is no distinction
between secular education and religious education.
The Noble Qur'an is not
a scientific treatise. It is a book of guidance, a book of wisdom. However there
are more than 1200 verses (Ayath) which can be interpreted in the light of modern
science. The Qur'an gave a great impetus to learning, particularly in the field
of natural sciences. The Qur'an Majid may be called the cause of modern scientific
and material progress.
PAIRS IN LIVING THINGS
One of the most recent
of all scientific discoveries is that everything in the universe exists in pairs
such as male and female among living things. Now we find that rock crystals
also have pairs.
The Qur'an says:
And of everything We have
created pairs: That ye may receive Instruction.
Surah Zariyat, 51: 49 A.
Yusuf All in note 5025 item (3) says " All things are in twos: sex in plants
and animals, by which one individual is complementary to another; in the subtle
forces of nature. Day and Night, positive and negative electricity, forces of
attraction and repulsion: and numerous other opposites, each fulfilling its
purpose, and contributing to the working of God's Universe; and in the moral
and spiritual world. Love and Aversion, Mercy and Justice, Striving and Rest,
and so on;-all fulfilling their functions according to the Artistry and wonderful
Purpose of God. Everything has its counterpart, or pair, or complement.
God alone is One, with none like Him, or needed to complement Him. These are
noble things to contemplate. And they lead us to a true understanding of God's
Purpose and Message."
Surah TA HA 20: 53
Sex in plants was discovered
in the 1890s. The knowledge that plants have life, their male and female characteristics,
pollination and fertilization is found in the Qur'an which was revealed 1400
PAIRS OF WHICH THEY HAVE
The most astounding fact
of all is that pairs exist at the atomic (nuclear particles, electrons) and
subatomic particles levels. The Qur'an very clearly states:
Surah YASEEN 36: 36
In note 3981 Yusuf Ali
says "The mystery of sex runs through all creation, -in man, in animal
life, in vegetable life, and possibly in other things of which we have no knowledge.
Then there are pairs of opposite forces in nature, e.g., positive and negative
electricity, etc. The atom itself consists of positively charged nucleus or
proton, surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The constitution of matter
itself is thus referred to pairs of opposite energies."
The purpose of this article
is to reflect and interpret in detail the Qur'anic statement " And (other)
things of which they have no knowledge." Man had no knowledge of the structure
of the atom until the early part of the twentieth century. Scores of subatomic
particles have been discovered recently and many are yet to be discovered. Nick
Herbert says in his book "FASTER THAN LIGHT" (published by New American
Library, New York, 1988, p.144)
"Today the physicists
have generalized Dirac's result and predict that all elementary particles come
in pairs, the existence of a certain particle implied that a corresponding antiparticle
In 1930, British Theoretical
Physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics P.A.M. Dirac based on mathematical equations
predicted the existence of antielectron, reverse electron or positron. This
is the first "electron-positron" pair at the elementary particle level
postulated then. In 1932 Carl Anderson using a particle detector called cloud
chamber detected the positron in Cosmic rays which flood the entire universe
including the earth.
As we know the nucleus
of an atom contains positively charged particles called protons and neutrons
with no charge but have the same mass as protons. The electron revolves around
the nucleus. This is the structure of an atom. The nucleon (proton or neutron)
is quite heavy compared to the mass of an electron. The mass of a nucleon is
1836 times the mass of an electron. The particles whose mass is between the
mass of an electron and the mass of a nucleon are called mesons (intermediate).
Muons are 207 times as massive as electrons. Pions are 270 times as massive
as electrons. There are three kinds of Pions: positively charged, neutral, and
negatively charged. A photon or a neutrino has zero charge and zero mass. A
nucleon (proton or neutron) consists of three quarks. The following definitions
will be helpful to the readers in understanding the Tables listing the subatomic
particles in pairs.
proton or neutron
baryon that is heavier than a nucleon
Meson: a particle
of medium mass (between an electron and a nucleon)
particle that can take part in a strong interaction (such as baryons and
particle of low or zero mass that can experience electromagnetic forces
or the weak force.
The masses of the particles
are expressed in energy units called MeV (million electron Volts). The mass
of an electron is expressed as 0.511 MeV and the mass of a nucleon is equal
to 938 MeV. A particle whose mass is between 0.511 MeV and 1000 MeV is a meson.
A particle whose mass is greater than 1000 MeV is a Hyperon.
Particle and antiparticle
constitutes a pair. Electron and positron is a pair. Proton and antiproton is
a pair. Neutron and antineutron is a pair. The details of the stable and semistable
particles along with their counter particles are shown in the Tables.
FUNDAMENTAL PARTICLES SHOWING THE PAIR