ISLAM PERSPECTIVE ON HUMAN CLONING
KHUTBAH JUMAAT 76 – 04 APRIL 2008
My dear muslims
A team at Newcastle University announced few days ago that it had successfully generated “admixed embryos” by adding human DNA to empty cow eggs in the first experiment of its kind in Britain. With that, embryos containing human and animal material have been created in Britain for the first time, a month before the House of Commons votes on new laws to regulate the research. Admixed embryos are widely supported by scientists and patient groups as they provide an opportunity to produce powerful stem-cell models for investigating diseases such as Parkinson’s and diabetes, and for developing new drugs. Their creation, however, has been opposed by some religious groups, particularly the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinal Keith O’Brien, the head of the Catholic Church in Scotland, described the work last month as “experiments of Frankenstein proportion”. The reason is clear, one of the outcome from this experiment is it made by placing the nucleus from a human cell into an animal egg that has had its nucleus removed. The genetic material in the resulting embryos is 99.9 per cent human. The phenomenon is actually not a new one, as few attempts of human trying to humanising other new human started before. The idea of cloning had enticed scientists since 1938. When no one knew what genetic material was or consisted of, the first modern embryologist, Dr. Hans Spemann of Germany proposed what he called a "fantastical experiment" : taking the nucleus out of an egg cell and replacing it with a nucleus from another cell. In short, he suggested that scientists try to clone. In 1952, frogs were used for the test. The size of the eggs in the frogs are enormous compared with those of mammals, making them far easier to manipulate. Robert Briggs and T.J. King used a pipette to suck the nucleus from the cell of an advanced frog embryo and added it to a frog egg. It did not develop. The quest continues in 1970 where another experiment yields better results. John Gurdon successfully cloned the frogs. Even though the frogs never reached adulthood , the eggs developed into tadpoles but died after they were ready to begin feeding, the technique was a landmark. He replaced the nucleus of a frog egg, one large cell, with that of another cell from another frog. He later showed that transplanted nuclei reverted to an embryonic state. 1981, Dr.Karl Illmense of the University of Geneva and Dr. Peter Hoppe of the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine, claimed that they had transplanted the nuclei of mouse embryo cells into mouse eggs and produced three live mice that were clones of the embryos. 1984, Steen Willadsen reported that he cloned a live lamb from immature sheep embryo cells. Others later reproduced his experiment using a variety of animals, including cattle, pigs, goats, rabbits, and rhesus monkeys. In 1994, Dr. Neal First of the University of Wisconsin at Madison, who has been Dr.Ian Wilmut's most constant competitor, cloned calves from embryos that have grown to at least 120 cells. In 1996, Dr. Ian Wilmut of Roslin Institute, Roslin, Midlothian in Scotland, United Kingdom repeated Dr. Neal First's experiment with sheep, however he put embryo cells into a resting state before transferring their nuclei to sheep eggs. The eggs developed into normal embryos and then into lambs. On February 22, 1997, Dr. Ian Wilmut, the 52-year old embryologist astonished the world by announcing that he had created the first animal cloned from an adult-a lamb named Dolly. By scrapping a few cells from the udder of a 6-year-old ewe, then fusing them into a specially altered egg cell from another sheep. The process has been banned few years after that, by statement in 1997, that human cloning would have to raise deep concerns, given most cherished concepts of faith and humanity. Each human life is unique, born of a miracle that reaches beyond laboratory science.
A clone is like
a photocopy of the original or an identical twin that is much younger in age.
If an identical twin has a soul, then a human clone will also have a soul. A
clone cannot be grown in a laboratory but in a surrogate mother's womb. The
surrogate mother provides all the nutrients for the cloned cell to grow to
become an embryo, a fetus and then after delivery a human child, just like the
lamb Dolly. The only difference between a normal child and a clone child is in
the genes. The normal child has 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23
chromosomes from the father or 23 pairs in every cell of the body except the germ
cells or gametes (sperm or ova). The clone child will have 23 pairs of
chromosomes of one parent.
Barakallahu li walakum
Mohd Erfino Johari
Posted by Mohd Erfino Johari at Friday, April 04, 2008
Labels: Khutbah Jumaat di MSD London
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