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Transfer of Science and Technology to Muslim Countries

Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph. D. 
President
Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc.
7102 W. Shefford Lane
Louisville, KY 40242-6462, USA

E-mail:
IRFI@INAME.COM
Website: 
http://WWW.IRFI.ORG

 

A large number of highly talented Muslim professionals live in North America, Australia, Europe, etc., who can assist in transferring science and technology to the Muslim countries. The following solutions are offered to achieve this technology transfer: 

A central registry-clearinghouse should be developed under the charge of a reputable Muslim Organization. All Muslim scientists, engineers, health professionals, etc., who are willing to assist in the development of Muslim countries should be invited to register. 

All Muslim countries should be informed of the availability of this Muslim Talent Pool. The countries should contact the Clearinghouse, detailing their specific needs. The host country can request the services of certain individual(s) listed in the Talent Pool. All expenses including travel, boarding and lodging should preferably be borne by the host country; in special circumstances the Clearinghouse may subsidize the expenses. It is expected that the Muslim experts would volunteer their time and will not accept any fee, honorarium or salary for their services. 

The Clearinghouse should be funded by wealthy Muslim nations to defray the set-up costs and operating expenses. 

Programs to assist developing countries are in existence; these include: The International Atomic Energy Agency, located in Vienna, Austria; TOKTEN (Transfer of Technology Through Expatriate Nationals)-a Program financed by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), WHO (World Health Organization) and other U.N. branches. OIC (Organization of Islamic Conference), IDB (Islamic Development Bank), ISESCO (Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) and other philanthropic Islamic organizations at the International level can actively participate and cooperate in achieving Science and Technology Transfer to the developing Muslim countries. 
 

INTRODUCTION 

The rise of the Muslims to the zenith of civilization in a period of four decades was based on Al-Islam's emphasis on learning. This is obvious when one takes a look at the Qur'an and the traditions of Prophet Muhammad (SAS) which are filled with references to learning, education, observation, and the use of reason. The very first verse of the Qur'an revealed to the Prophet of Al-Islam (SAS) on the night of power (Laylathul Qadr) in the month of Ramadan in 611 A.D. reads: 

"Read: In the name of thy Lord who created man from a clot. Read: And they Lord is the Most Generous Who taught by the pen, taught man that which he knew not." Surah Al-Alaq, 96:1-5 
 

"And they shall say had we but listened or used reason, we would not among the inmates of the burning fire." Al Mulk, 67:10

"Are those who have knowledge and those who have no knowledge alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful." Al Zumar, 39:9. 

The Qur'an exhorts the Muslims to scientific research: 

" And whoso bringeth the truth and believeth therein such are the dutiful." Surah Al Zumar, 39:33 

Every Muslim man's and every Muslim woman's prayer should be: 

"My Lord! Enrich me with knowledge." Surah TA HA, 20:114. 

The pursuit of knowledge and the use of reason, based on sense of observation is made obligatory on every Muslim man and woman. 

The following traditions of the Prophet (SAS) supplement the foregoing teachings of the Qur'an in the following way: 

(1) Seek knowledge "even though it be in China."

(2) "The acquisition of knowledge is compulsory for every Muslim, whether male or female."

(3) "The ink of the scholar is more sacred than the blood of the martyr."

(4) "Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave."

(5) "God has revealed to me, 'Whoever walks in the pursuit of Knowledge I facilitate for him the way to heaven.'

(6) "The best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge."

(7) "Scholars should endeavor to spread knowledge and provide education to people who have been deprived of it. For,  where knowledge is hidden it disappears."

(8) Some one asked the Prophet (SAS): "Who is the biggest  scholar?" He replied: "He who is constantly trying to  learn from others, for a scholar is every hungry for more knowledge."

(9) "Seek for knowledge and wisdom, for whatever the vessel from which it flows, you will never be the loser."

(10) "Thinking deep for one hour (with sincerity) is better than 70 years of (mechanical) worship."

(11) "Worship without knowledge, has no goodness in it and  knowledge without understanding has no goodness in it. And the recitation of the Qur'an, which is not thoughtful

has no goodness in it."

(12) "To listen to the words of the learned and to instill unto others the lessons of science is better than  religious exercises."

(13) "Acquire knowledge: it enables its possessor to distinguish right from the wrong, it lights the way to heaven; it is our friend in the desert, our society in solitude, our companion when friendless; it guides us to happiness; it sustains us in misery; it is an ornament among friends and an armor against enemies." 
 

MUSLIM HERITAGE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 

Prophet Muhammad(SAS) was able to unite the Arab tribes who had been torn by revenge, rivalry, and internal fights, and produced a strong nation, that acquired and ruled simultaneously the two known empires at that time, namely the Persian and Byzantine Empires. The Islamic Empire extended from the Atlantic Ocean on the West to the borders of China on the East. Only 80 years after the death of their Prophet the Muslims crossed to Europe to rule Spain for more than 700 years. The Muslims preserved the cultures of the conquered lands. 

The Islamic Empire for more than 1,000 years remained the most advanced and civilized nation in the world. This is because Al-Islam stressed the importance and respect of learning, forbade destruction, developed in Muslims the respect for authority, discipline, and tolerance for other religions. The Muslims recognized excellence and hungered intellectually. The teachings of Qur'an and Sunnah drove many Muslims to their accomplishments in sciences and medicine. 

By the tenth century their zeal and enthusiasms for learning resulted in all essential Greek medical and scientific writings being translated into Arabic in Damascus, Cairo, and Baghdad. Arabic became the international language of learning and diplomacy. The center of scientific knowledge and activity shifted eastward, and Baghdad emerged as the capitol of the scientific world. The Muslims became scientific innovators with originality and productivity. The rise of Muslims to the zenith of civilization lasted over a thousand years. During this millennium Muslims contributed vastly to the enhancements of arts, science and cultural growth of mankind.  

For example Islamic medicine is one of the most famous and best known facets of Islamic civilization, and in which the Muslims most excelled. The Muslims were the great torchbearers of international scientific research. Some of the best and most eloquent praises of science ever written came from the pens of Muslim scientists who considered their work to be acts of worship. The same motives led to the establishment of Al-Azhar(800 A.D.) the first university in the world. They hit the "source ball of knowledge" over the fence to Europe. In the words of Campbell, "The European medical system is Arabian not only in origin but also in its structure. The Arabs are the intellectual forbearers of the Europeans." In fact the Muslims are directly responsible for the European Renaissance. 

At the apex of its glory around the tenth century Cordoba, the capital of Muslim Spain, had pavements, street lighting, three hundred public baths, parks, palaces, one hundred thousand houses and seventy libraries. There were close to half a million books in a single library whereas the whole of France contained much less than this figure. The Muslim physicians performed complicated eye surgery 600 years earlier than in Europe. The Muslim scientists used paper 200 years before Europe, they had paper mills, banks, police stations and invented spherical trigonometry(indispensable for space sciences) in the late 10th century, solved equations of the third and fourth degree, binomials to the nth degree, and developed differential and integral mathematics. They discovered the force of gravitation, blood circulation, laws of motion, and even developed they theory of evolution and taught it in their universities. They measured the circumferences of the earth and value for specific gravities correct to three decimal places almost a thousand years ago. There is hardly a field of knowledge where Muslims did not research, think, or investigate and explore or

invent something exemplary. 
 

PRESENT STATUS OF MUSLIM UMMAH 

The status of the Muslim Ummah is of great concern to all the Muslim intellectuals. No one can deny that the Muslim Ummah occupies a position which is at the lowest rung of the ladder in the world. The share of the Muslims in Nobel Prizes and the Olympic Games is close to nothing. Muslims' contributions to literature both general and scientific is marginal at the best. It is very sad to see the status of Muslims in the present world at the bottom. Muslims have been economically exploited and politically subjugated. Economically, Muslims are poor; in education they are backward; and in science and technology they are marginal. Even very small countries export arms, medicine and technology to the Muslim countries. The average literacy rate is around 38 percent and in rural areas in Muslim countries, the illiteracy rate among Muslim women is 93 to 97 percent. This is contradictory to the message of the Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad(SAS) as mentioned earlier. The Muslims educated in the western world know about western books and western scholars but they know very little about Muslims books and the intellectual achievements of the Muslims (Fig. 1). The data presented in Table 1 show the Muslims to be at the bottom of the three measures identified. Inspite of the comparable levels of development the mean rate for literacy for the Muslims is 35 per cent lower than that for the Third World, and 40 percent below the world's average. The data suggests that almost two-thirds of the Muslims worldwide are illiterate. This low level of literacy, evidently, is responsible for the grinding poverty, the backwardness, and the deplorable conditions under which the vast majority of the Muslims live at present( 1). Table 2 gives the literacy rates for the most populous nations. Pakistan is the most advanced Muslim country in science and technology among Muslim nations. However, the literacy rate for Pakistan, home to the second largest Muslim ummah in the world, ranks the lowest among the most populous nations, is even below the average for the Muslim nations. What is shocking is India the second most populous nation in the world, has a significantly higher rate of literacy than Pakistan and Bangladesh. At one time the three countries constituted a single country(British India) with a literacy rate of 12 percent on the eve of the partition in 1947(1).  

When the data for the three category of nations is examined, shown in Table 3 , the Muslim nations once again occupy the lower most position. The rate of enrollment in higher education for Muslim is fully 45 percent lower than that for the Third World countries, a state of affairs that could be regarded stunning. The data presented in Table 3 suggests that the pool for the selection of intellectual manpower, needed for development and leadership positions, is so small that the forward momentum in the Muslim countries, at this critical stage of industrial expansion would be seriously jeopardized unless corrective steps are taken in the very near future. The experience of the developed countries indicate that the provision of advanced education and training to large numbers of young people is the only way in which modern scientific knowledge can be introduced in a society and the state of the art technology implemented, essential both for raising productivity and enhancing developmental growth Examination of Table 4 shows that Pakistan, of all the large countries, has the lowest level of enrollment in higher education. Surprisingly, the three largest Muslim countries have higher education enrollment rates below the average for the Muslim nations. They are also uniformly below the rates for the Third World counterparts such as China(6 percent), India(9 percent), Brazil (12 percent), particularly the Asian ones, even though all are at similar levels of economic development. Interestingly the two Muslim countries with the highest levels of participation in higher education are the small nations, shown in Table 4, of Jordan and Lebanon, whose combined population is less than that of the city of Karachi in Pakistan(1).

A country needs to spend between 0.7 and 3.5 percent of its

GNP on R and D(Research and Development) and achieve a target of 4000 scientists and engineers per million of inhabitants working on R and D (2). The developing Muslim countries are spending about 0.5 percent whereas, in contrast, the developed countries are allocating between 2 and 5 percent of their GNP on R and D (2). Per capita expenditure in all the OIC or Muslim countries, with the exception of Kuwait and Tunisia has been estimated to be less than 27 US dollars as against 80 to 966 US dollars in the case of the developed countries(Table 5). The annual average expenditure per R & D scientist or engineer for the Muslim countries ranged between 4,800 to 76,000 US dollars (except Brunei, Kuwait and Tunisia), as against 15,000 to 250,000 US dollars for the developed countries. 
 

The total expenditure on R & D in the Muslim countries ranges between 600,000 to 316 million US dollars as against 11.1 to 29.24 trillion dollars in the case of developed countries(2). 

In the case of the developed countries, about one-half to two-third of R & D expenditure is found to be concentrated in production sector, with the minimum allocation for the general services sector. In case of the Muslim countries, the percentage distribution of the R & D funds between the sectors in respect of Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Sudan however seems relatively better(2). 

 

COMPARISON OF R AND D MANPOWER  

Four tables have been constructed for this purpose. In the Table 6, R and D scientists and engineers, and technicians per million of population and number of technicians per scientist and engineer had been estimated. The number of scientists and engineers per million of population for Muslim countries ranged between 16 to 924 as against 3,800 to 11,000 for the developed countries(3). The disparity between the Third World and Muslim nations in the number of scientists and engineers is quite striking. Despite similar levels of development, there are more than twice as many scientists and engineers in the Third World as in the Muslim countries, and almost eleven times as many in the Industrialized nations. The pool of scientific manpower engaged in meaningful economic activity in the Muslim world is simply too small to make the kind of contribution needed by industrializing societies on the verge of take-off. The lower level of scientific capability among the Muslims is borne out by their inability to produce sophisticated technological goods. On the other hand Third World countries such as South Korea, Brazil, India, Taiwan manufacture such high technology products as T.Vs, VCRs, aircrafts, missiles, satellites, and computers which none of the Muslim countries do.  

The availability of technicians per million of population for the Muslim countries varied between 7 to 493 as against 800 to 5,000 for the developed countries. Data from the State Science and Technology Commission(SSTC) show that China had 640,000 full-time R&D personnel in 1993, including 418,000 scientists and engineers. Half of them work at Government-run R&D institutions, with a third at universities and the rest at companies(4). In the United States, by comparison, about 80% of the country's roughly 960,000 scientists and engineers in R&D work in private industry, with about 12% at universities. 

China spent about $7.5 billion in 1993 on science and technology, one third of which is classified as research and development. 6.7% of those R&D funds are used for basic research with 30.5% going to applied research and the rest(62.8%) classified as development. The largest support goes to life science which includes agriculture and receives about 33% of the total and other departments such as physical sciences, chemical science, earth science, materials and engineering science, and information science get from 10 to 18%. About 70% of its funding goes to applied science projects, with the rest classified as basic research. By the end of the decade China will raise research spending from 7% to 10% and eventually reaching 15%. 

Table 7 gives number of scientists, engineers, and technicians engaged in research and experimental development in the Muslim countries compared with the developed countries. Muslim countries have one-tenth of scientists, engineers and technicians compared with the developed countries. Russia has 40 times more scientists, engineers, and technicians compared with the Muslim countries. 

In Table 8 distribution of R & D scientists and engineers by field of science has been shown. Developed countries have their maximum number of scientists and engineers working in the fields of natural sciences and engineering and technology( about two-thirds of the total) whereas in the case of the Muslim countries, maximum number is concentrated in agriculture, except in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan the former Soviet Union Republics. 

The distribution of R & D scientists and engineers by sector of performance is shown in Table 9 . In the case of the developed countries, the highest share( about one-half to two-thirds) goes to the lot of production sector, with general services sector receiving the minimum. However in Muslim countries, general services and higher education sector together account for an overwhelming intake of the R & D scientists and engineers. 

If we consider the present enrolment in scientific and technological education in the 18-23 year age group at the universities as an index of high scientific potential, the Muslim countries average 2 % of the relevant age group compared to the norms of around 12% for the developed countries (5).

A similar ratio of 1:6 prevails also in respect of GNP expenditures on scientific and technological research and development as mentioned earlier.

Table 10 gives information on the intellectual property, particularly in the field of Patents. Table 10 gives the number of Patent applications filed by each country, the number granted and the total number of patents in force. Again compared to the industrial countries the Muslim countries have fared very poorly with regard to intellectual property(6). 

The Muslim world cannot afford to live without science and technology. As seen earlier the Muslim world as a whole is backward in science and technological development. Countries like India, Israel, Korea, Taiwan, and China had meager natural resources. They started from scratch and their technological advances have surprised the developed nations. 

Technological advances are indispensable for a country's national security planning and military strategy. Without scientific and technological development no nation can compete in economics and marketing. For effective utilization of science and technology, the Muslim world must formulate science and technology policy that has goals, priorities, and infrastructure. As stated in the beginning, Islam is not against the acquisition of scientific knowledge and technology that improve Muslims' standard of living and quality of life. Muslim world must stop importing military weapons and start manufacturing the needed weapons including space satellites and their launching vehicles(rockets and missiles), to safeguard their national security. 

WHAT CAN BE DONE 

To acquire technology optimally, Muslims must undertake a large-scale literary program in all the basic sciences and engineering. They should produce a large cadre of scientists and engineers and skilled workers. All imports should be minimized, and the necessary technical know-how should be developed to produce the imported products internally, and make preparations for exporting quality goods. There are many Muslim countries who purchase billions of dollars of military hardware without any knowledge of how to maintain, develop and adapt it. Whenever a war breaks out, it is revealed they don't know who to operate the imported military hardware. In fact technical illiteracy has made the hardware technical toys. There is no need for Muslim countries to invest 40 to 60 percent of the GNP on military hardware as the developed countries invest only 6 % of the GNP for defense. The Muslim countries should invest not more than 10 percent of the GNP on defense and the rest of the previous defense budget should be invested on education. The budgets of Universities should be increased by ten fold so that they can pay their faculty well and have high quality national laboratories, libraries, and computer facilities. High ranking universities and national academic institutions should be established. Information superhighway through the cybernet should be a top priority with all the universities and research laboratories connected through the internet e-mail and world wide web. Young scientists have a hard time finding good housing. Housing should be a standard part of a scientist's compensation package. 

To become a force to reckon with Muslim countries should enhance R and D both in basic and applied research. The advances made by Japan, China and Germany should be a role model for the Muslim world in transferring newly developed technologies to industry very quickly. Every Muslim country should build flexible technological infrastructure with strong emphasis on state-of-the-art capability. 

Muslim countries should join in many International Scientific Unions in the diverse subjects of science. They should establish international centers of scientific research, hold many international scientific conferences and encourage their R & D personnel to attend international scientific conferences in other countries. The renaissance of sciences within the Muslim countries is contingent upon five cardinal preconditions: passionate commitment, generous patronage, provision of security, self-governance, and internationalization of scientific enterprise(5). 

Munir Ahmed Khan, former Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission made the following suggestions(7): 
 

1. Establish an Educational Foundation in USA which will  support scholars from developing Muslim countries for short  visits as well as for long-term training; 

2. Institute joint ventures between educational, scientific  and business institutions in US and those in the Muslim  countries; 

3. Help establish new training institutes in Muslim countries,  and support those which already exist through such means as  organized exchange visits and provision of technical advice; 
 

4. Cosponsor scientific conferences and seminars in the Muslim  world on the pattern of the International Summer College on  Physics and Contemporary Needs which is held annually at  Nathiagali in Pakistan. 

5. Organize short visits of eminent Muslim  scientists/engineers to advice their counterparts in Muslim  countries. 

A large number of highly trained and talented Muslim professionals live in the Western countries, including developed and industrialized countries, such as America, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, etc., and Japan. These eminent scientists and engineers and physicians are willing to assist in the transfer of science and technology to the Muslim countries. In order to achieve this the following suggestions have to be implemented: 

A central registry-clearinghouse should be developed under the charge of a reputable Muslim Organization such as OIC(Organization of Islamic Conference) or its designated agency such as COMSTECH located in Islamabad, Pakistan. All Muslim scientists, engineers, health professionals(including physicians, medical scientists, dentists, etc.) etc., who are willing to assist in the development of the Muslim countries should be invited to register. The entries in the Register should contain items with regard to applicant's educational qualifications, training experience, field of expertise, fluency in languages, period of availability, time of notice required to undertake the project, country of preference, honorarium expected, etc.  

OIC should announce during one of its meetings or arrange a meeting inviting all Ministers for science and technology of all the Muslim countries about the Talent Pool Registry of able scientists, Engineers and Health Professionals. The Register should list and have cross references with regard to names of scientists and their field of specialization. This can be easily done in a computer. The Muslim countries who are in need of the services of the professionals listed in the Registry should contact the Clearinghouse Institution detailing their specific needs. The host country can request the services of certain individual(s) listed in the Talent Pool. All expenses including travel, boarding and lodging should preferably be borne by the host country or it should be borne by the Clearinghouse Institution. It is expected that the Muslim experts would volunteer their time and will not accept any fee, honorarium or salary for their services. This they can do in their vacation time or during sabbatical leave if they are in teaching institutions. Those professionals who do not have these privileges should be paid some modest honoraria. 

Wealthy Muslim countries who are blessed with natural resources should fund generously to defray the set-up costs and operating expenses. 

Programs to assist developing countries are in existence. These include the International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA), located in Vienna, Austria; TOKTEN (Transfer of Technology Through Expatriate Nationals), a Program financed by the United Nations Development Program(UNDP), WHO (World Health Organization) and other United Nations(U.N.) branches. Apart from OIC, IDB(Islamic Development Bank), ISESCO (Islamic Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization) and many other philanthropic Islamic organizations at the International level can actively participate and cooperate in achieving science and technology Transfer to the developing Muslim countries. 

 

CONCLUSIONS: 

The Tables presented on the educational levels in Muslim countries, the R and D scientists and engineers, the number of patents applied, obtained and total number in force is a measure of the intellectual properties all indicate that the Muslim countries have a long way to go to catch up with even the average developing countries in the Third World. The Muslim world is not prepared to face the challenges of the 21st century which comes within a short time. Rapid growth in science and technology is essential and even critical for the very survival of Muslim countries. Muslim intellectuals in North America and the West have an added obligation to their home countries with their enriched knowledge, vision, experience and scientific and technological expertise. Their reward is in the pride and pleasure of witnessing the advancement of their home countries in particular and the advancement of the Muslim world in general. Let us work together to put science and technology on the agenda of the Muslim World. This should be tackled as a top priority and even on a War footing. 
 

REFERENCES 

1. HANIFF GM.: Education and Development in the Muslim World. Proceedings of the International Conference on Islamic Renaissance: Action Plan for the 21st Century, May 26-28, 1995, Chicago. (to be published).  

2. IHSANOGLU E, AND ASLAM M.: Research and Development in the OIC Countries. The Muslim World Journal, 10(8): 32-38, 1983 

3. UNESCO: "Science and Technology" Section 5. UNESCO Statistica Yearbook 1995. 

4. SCIENCE IN CHINA: The Long March to Topnotch Science. Science, 270(17):1134-1154, 1995. 
 

5. SALAM MA.: Islam and Science. Al-Tawhid 4(4): 61-83, 1987 

6. STATISTICAL YEAR BOOK 1992. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division. UNITED NATIONS. NEW YORK, 1994 

7. KHAN MA.: Technology and the Muslim World in the 1990's. Keynote Address at the Joint Annual Conference of the Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers(AMSE) and the Association of Muslim Social Scientists(AMSS), Detroit, Michigan, USA, October 26-28, 1990.

A. WESTERN ISLAMIC

Das Capital Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh

Thomas Aquinas    Al Ghazali

Newton, Kepler    Al-Biruni

Marcopolo     Ibn Batuta

Toynbee    Ibn Khaldun

Napoleon    Omar(R), Khalid bin Walid

Peter the Great   Salahuddin, Suleiman the Magnificent, Babur 

World History    Islamic History

William Harvey   Ibn Nafis

Charles Darwin  Al Masudi, Ibn Rush, Al-Biruni, Rumi 

B. AL - BIRUNI 

Discovered Gravity

Father of Paleontology/Evolution(through study of fossil records)

Proved Earth is Round through Lunar Eclipses

Explained why Sun does not set for several months in Northern Areas(saved life of a visitor to Sultan Ghazni's Court)

Measured Radius and Circumference of Earth accurately, + or - 15 km and + or - 200 km error

Showed Earth rotates daily on its axis and moves around the Sun, completes it annually

Indus and Ganges plains of India were under bottom of sea

Studied Hydrostatics/Hydrology

Wrote Euclid's ELEMENTS and Ptolemy's ALMAGEST

Wrote History of India & Chronology of ancient nations.

Masudi Canon(Astronomy Encyclopedia)

Invented Spherical Trigonometry 

C.  AL - BATTANI (877 - 929) ABUL - WAFA(940-998) 

Sin A = tan A/(1 + tan2 A)1/2 Sin(A+B) = SinA CosB + CosA SinB

Cos A = 1/(1 + tan2 A)1/2

ABUL HASSAN AL-BASTI showed in the Book "SCIENCE OF THE STARS" to the Europeans that Muslims used signs \/- for square root;  for unknown; x2 for square

Fig.1: A. A contrast between Western Books and Islamic Books and Achievers(Top). B. A list of the achievements of the Universal Muslim Scientist AL-BIRUNI(Middle). C. Mathematical Formulae and Works of Muslim Mathematicians AL-BUTTANI and ABUL-WAFA(bottom).     
 

Table 1* 

Literacy 

(Mean rates in percentages) 

All Nations 63 

Industrial Nations 98 

Third World Nations   59

Muslim Nations   38 

Table 2* 

Literacy Rates for Most Populous Nations 

(In percentages) 

Industrial Nations Third World Nations Muslim Nations 

U.S.A. 99 China 73 Indonesia 84 

Russia 99 India 50 Pakistan 36 

Japan 99 Brazil 82 Bangladesh 37 

Table 3*  

Enrollment in Higher Education 

(As a percentage of population aged 20-24)

All Nations 16

Industrial Nations 39

Third World Nations 14

Muslim Nations 8

* Adopted from Reference 1

Table 4* 

Enrollment in Higher Education For Muslim Countries 

(As a percentage of population aged 20-24) 

------------------------------------------------------------------

Percent in Percent in

Country Higher Education Country Higher Education

Lebanon 27 Malaysia 7 

Jordan 22 Bangladesh 3 

Syria 18 Pakistan 3 

Egypt 18 Senegal 3 

Kuwait  15   Sudan  3 

Turkey  14   Mauritania  3 

Iraq  13  Yemen   3 

Saudi Arabia 12  Somalia   3 

Libya  10  Guinea    1 

Algeria  10  Afghanistan   1 

Morocco 10  Mali   0.8 

Iran   9  Chad   0.8 

Indonesia  9  Burkina Faso  0.7 

Tunisia   8  Niger   0.7

------------------------------------------------------------------- 

* Adapted from Reference # 1 
 

Table 5+ 

Selected Indicators for Expenditures on R & D

Developed versus Muslim Countries 

-------------------------------------------------------------------       EXPENDITURE ON R & D

------------------------------------------

Country Year Percentage Per Capita Annual Average of

GNP in US $  per R&D Scntst or Engnr US $

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries 

USA 1988 2.9 568 146,708

Germany 1989 2.8 966 248,116

Japan 1991 3.0 250 148,377

Russia 1990 --- 80 14,869 

 

Muslim Countries  

Brunei 1984 0.1 23 254,206

Egypt 1991 1.0 11 23,331

Iran 1985 0.1 5 75,728

Indonesia 1988 0.2 0.87 4,801

Jordan  1986 0.3 2.86 38,188

Kuwait 1984 0.9 149 159,112

Libya 1980 0.2 27 70,253

Malaysia 1989 0.1 2.22 ---

Pakistan 1987 0.9 2.93 ---

Tunisia 1992 0.3 6,055 15,615,024

Turkey  1991 0.8 13.9 66,812

------------------------------------------------------------------- 

+ Adapted from Reference # 3 

 

Table 6+

Selected Indicators for Manpower in R & D

Developed versus Muslim Countries 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      

Country Year Scnts and Technicians No. of Tech-    Engnrs(FTE)  per million nicians per

per million population Scntst and     population     Engineer

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries

USA 1988 3,873 ... 1.2

Germany 1989 10,701 5,114 0.9

Japan 1992 5,677 869 0.2

Russia 1990 5,856 ... ... 

 

Muslim Countries  
 

Algeria 1972  16   7 0.4

Bangladesh 1974 23 10 0.5

Cameroon 1970 49 .... ....

Egypt 1991 458 340 0.7

Iran 1985 65 38 0.6

Iraq 1974 138 35 0.3

Indonesia 1988 181 .. ...

Jordan   1986 106 7 0.1

Kuwait 1984 924 343 1.4

Libya 1980 361 493 1.4

Malaysia 1988 326 89 0.2

Niger 1976 20 .. ...

Pakistan 1990 54 76 1.4

Senegal 1981 342 467 1.4

Sudan 1978 188 1.0

Tunisia 1992 388 71 0.2

Turkey  1991 209 123 0.1 

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

 

+ Adapted from Reference # 3

 

Table 7+ 

 

Number of Scientists, Engineers and Technicians engaged in

research and experimental development in Developed versus Muslim Countries

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------       Technicians

Scientists and Engineers

Country Year Total  

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries

USA 1988 ... 949,200 ....

Germany 1989 491,800 303,850 187,950

Japan 1992 813,360 705,346 108,014

Russia 1990 ..... 1,694,400 .....  

 

Muslim Countries

Brunei 1984 136 20 116

Egypt 1991 46,022 26,415 19,607

Iran 1985 5,048 3,194 1,854

Indonesia 1988 .... 32,038 ......

Jordan   1986 447 418 29

Kuwait 1984 2,072 1,511 561

Libya 1980 2,600 1,100 1,500

Malaysia 1988 6,707 5,537 1,170

Pakistan  1990 15,940 6,626 9,314

Qatar 1986 290 229 61

Senegal 1981 4,610 1,948 2,662

Tajikistan 1992 ..... 3,974 ....

Tunisia 1992 3,860 3,260 600

Turkey   1991 13,277 11,948 1,329

Uzbekistan 1992 44,312 37,625 6,687

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

 + Adapted from Reference # 3

Table 8+ 

 

Distribution of Scientists and Engineers(FTE) in R and D by Discipline: Developed versus Muslim Countries

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Natural Engi- Medical Agri- Soci.

Science neering Sciences culture Sciences and & Tech Humanities

Country Year

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries

Germany(East) 1989 15,480 88,542 9,232 8,376 5,819

Japan 1981 80,442 142,316 64,408 26,598 41,316

Russia 1991 171,600 572,800 28,400 25,900 68,600

 

Muslim Countries

Egypt 1991 9,620 7,726 3,677 7,157 16,366

Indonesia 1983 5,317 3,285 1,615 4,083 4,233

Jordan   1982 310 340 118 92 381

Libya 1980 230 198 130 221 321

Pakistan 1990 2,095 998 172 2,128 67

Qatar 1986 160 53 2 5 ..

Tajikistan 1992 677 2,058 429 210 595

Turkey   1983 891 1,040 1,350 1,590 531

Uzbekistan 1992 6,841 13,993 3,736 1,927 9,292

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
+ Adapted from Reference # 3 

Table 9+ 

Distribution of Scientists and Engineers(FTE) in R and D by Sector of Performance: Developed versus Muslim Countries

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    

Country Year Production Higher General Education Services Sector Sector

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries 

 

USA 1988 716,800 135,100 97,300

Germany 1989 442,641 80,295 98,583

Japan 1992 563,018 264,055 82,978

Russia 1991 1,105,700 103,700 286,300 

 

Muslim Countries  

 

Egypt 1991 12,968 61,124 20,091

Jordan 1986 23 255 140

Kuwait 1984 298 448 1,645

Lebanon 1980 ... 206 ---

Libya 1980 200 800 100

Malaysia 1988 9,258 4,347 --

Pakistan 1990 --- 5,580

Qatar 1986 --- 185 --

Senegal 1981 285 826 837

Tunisia 1992 --- 5,446 1,755

Turkey 1991 2,509 8,768 3,692

Uzbekistan 1991 1,461 18,969 2,499

--------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 

+ Adapted from Reference # 3 
 

Table 10** 

 Intellectual Property.

Patents: Applications, Grants of Patents, and Patents in force: number for the Year 1991

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    

Country Application Grants of Patents Patents

for patents in force

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Developed Countries 

 

USA 177,388 96,514 1,157,241

Germany 109,187 43,190 244,488

Japan 380,453 36,100 579,695

Russia 30,180 1,215 6,956 

 

Muslim Countries  

 

Algeria 139 617 ---

Bangladesh 113 78 597

Egypt 787 403 ---

Indonesia 1,336 --- --

Iran 427 286 ---

Iraq 322 101 913

Jordan   --- --- ---

Kuwait --- --- ---

Libya 47 --- ---

Malaysia 2,427 512 ----

Morocco 356 303 ----

Niger --- --- ---

Pakistan 524 --

Saudi Arabia 519 --- ---

Senegal --- --- ---

Sudan 4,411 37 ---

Tunisia 128 180 4,090

Turkey 1,205 694 6,351

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

** Adapted from Reference # 6

 

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