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Grand Unification Theory (GUT)

 by Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph. D. 
President
Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc.
7102 W. Shefford Lane
Louisville, KY 40242-6462, USA

E-mail:
IRFI@INAME.COM
Website: 
http://WWW.IRFI.ORG

 

                                       

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Islam is not in conflict with science and that Al-Qur'an does not contradict or negate modern scientific findings or discoveries.  Western scholars have credited Islam for the advancement of scientific knowledge. All matter in the universe is acted upon or controlled by four kinds of force; strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational.  The gravitational force is mediated by gravitons, the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons, and the weak force is mediated by intermediate vector bosons (W+, W-, or Z particles).  The strong force is mediated by gluons.  The goal of modern physics is to discover a simpler underlying order in the diversity of particles of matter and forces.  In 1967 Salam and Weinberg unified electromagnetism and weak force through Electro-weak theory.  In 1973 Glashow and Georgi came up with a unified theory of the weak, the strong, and the electromagnetic forces based on SU (5) symmetry.  This is popularly known as the GUT or Grand ' Unification Theory.  This unification is possible at about 1029 cm or at energy of about 1015 times the mass of the proton.  The unification force is mediated by X particle whose rest mass energy is 1015 GeV (giga electron volts). This particle is not feasible to be created experimentally as the energy required to produce the particle cannot be achieved in the laboratory.  However, there is indirect evidence as X particles can do something no other particles can do; they can transform a quark (a proton Is made of 3 quarks) Into a lepton (electron, photon, neutrino or muon) or a quark into an antiquark.  Tills process puts in question the very stability of matter.  In other words it predicts the decay of proton or neutron (bound in the nucleus).  Certain ayath in the Al-Qur'an predict that all matter will perish and that there is a time limit for everything.  Thus the Qur'an predicts the decay of protons and neutrons (bound in the nucleus).   Therefore one can conclude that Al-Qur'an predicts the Grand Unification Theory.

 

INTRODUCTION 

It has been shown that Islam is not in conflict with science and that Al-Qur'an does not contradict or negate modern scientific findings or discoveries (l, 2).  On the other hand Western scholars have praised and credited Islam for the preservation and advancement of scientific knowledge by Muslim physicians, scientists and technologists (3).  1,400 years later modern science is bringing to light the truths or confirming what has been revealed in Al-Qur'an (4,5).  A learned scientist will find in the Qur'an scientific truths and realities.  The Qur'an is too small a volume to contain all the knowledge of the world, life and universe.  One can perceive the truths through clues and hints revealed in the Qur'an. First an attempt is made to explain the Grand Unification Theory (GUT) and later Qur'anic ayath are quoted which predict the indirect proof of the Grand Unification Theory.

FOUR KINDS OF FORCE 

All matter in the universe is acted upon or controlled by four kinds of force: strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational.  There is no reason why nature should be so complicated.  The goal of modern physics is to discover a simpler underlying order in the diversity of particles of matter and forces.  In particular a clear understanding of nature could be achieved if the four forces are unified.  They appear to have a common origin and could be viewed as different manifestations of a single more fundamental force.

GRAVITATION 

Of the four forces, gravitation was the first force to be discovered

by Newton in 1687.  This force acts throughout the universe and it is the weakest among all forces.  Newton devised a simple law for gravitational force that correctly describes both terrestrial and celestial motions. In Newton's theory of gravitation, time and space are separate and do not have the close relation they have in special relativity.  In 1916 Einstein revised the theory of gravitation and proposed the general theory of relativity.

 ELECTROMAGNETISM 

      In the 19th century James Clerk Maxwell using a set of differential equations showed that electricity and magnetism are one force and called it the electromagnetic force.   Gravitation and electromagnetism are long-range forces, which can be observed macroscopically.

 WEAK INTERACTION AND STRONG FORCE 

      Early in the twentieth century two new forces of nature were discovered. One is the weak interaction, which is responsible for the beta decay of radioactive materials.  The second one is the strong or nuclear force, which binds the nucleons (protons and neutrons) together in the nucleus of an atom. These forces were not discovered earlier because they act only over the short range of subatomic distances. For example the strong force acts at a distance of 10-12 cm and the weak force acts at a distance of 10-15 cm. 

     Table I presents the strengths of these four forces.  Figure 1 presents the theories in physics that suggest a gradual development toward unification. Figure 2 shows how the four forces of nature act.  The gravitational force is mediated by a fundamental particle called graviton.  The electromagnetic force is mediated by a photon.  The weak force is mediated by a positive, negative or neutral intermediate vector boson (W+, W-, or Z particle). The strong force is mediated by eight massless particles called gluons. Whereas the massless photon has no electric charge, some of the gluons do carry color charge.

U (l) THEORY 

      The concept of force is closely connected with that of an electric charge.  Electric charge is the property attributed to a particle that responds to the electromagnetic force, and the amount of the charge determines the response as stated in the Coulomb's law.  An accurate theory that describes electromagnetism is called quantum electrodynamics (QED).  The conservation of electric charge and the masslessness of the photon are related to a group of symmetries in the mathematical system that describes quantum electrodynamics.  The group of symmetries is designated U (l), a term borrowed from the mathematical theory of groups. So QED is a U (l) theory.  U (l) is the group of transformations that can be carried out on a single object (one electrical charge) or on a one-by-one matrix.  In Its application to electromagnetism the U (l) symmetry signifies that the electromagnetic force cannot change the identity of a particle The one-by-one matrix is occupied by the photon, which can only transform an electron Into another electron. 

SU (3) THEORY 

      The prevailing theory of the strong force is called quantum chromodynamics (QCD) similar to QED, "chromo" signifying that the force acts not between electric charges but between color charges.  There are three kinds of color charge  +1/2, -1/2, or 0.    QCD is described by an SU (3), where SU (3) is another term from the theory of groups.  The 3 refers to the three colors that are transformed Into one another by the gluons.  The S Indicates that the sum of the color charges in each SU (3) family is zero.  In a close analogy with the

U (l) of QED, the SU (3) of QCD describes a group of symmetries of the theory that is associated with the conservation of color charge and the masslessness of gluons.

 

SU (2) THEORY 

     To discuss the weak force, it is necessary to introduce another property of the elementary particles; spin angular momentum (spinning on an internal axis, like the earth or top) also called handedness of a particle.  The weak force acts on doublets of particles.  The doublets of weak isospin that quarks and leptons form (Table 2) is a two-ness.  The he SU (5) symmetry was just beginning to breakdown, and quark-lepton conversions were as frequent as any other Interactions.  No fundamental distinction could be made between quarks and leptons or between the strong, weak and electromagnetic forces: there was one kind of matter and one force (Fig. 3)

PREDICTION OF PROTON DECAY 

     Even If it is never possible to exhibit a real X particle in the laboratory the existence of such particles might be demonstrated indirectly by detecting events in which a virtual X particle is exchanged.  Such exchanges would themselves be extremely rare, since they could take place only when two elementary particles happened to stray within less than 10-29 cm of each other. Compared to the commoner events, however, the exchange of an X particle would

be readily discerned because X particles can do something no other particles can do: they can transform a quark into a lepton or a quark into an antiquark. This process puts in question the very stability of matter.  In other words it predicts the decay of proton and neutron (bound in the nucleus). (Fig.4).

 

     Using the calculation of the unification scale the rate of decay of the proton is estimated.  The present estimate is that the average lifetime of the proton is about 1030 years.  The age of the universe since Big Bang is 1010 years.  The search for proton decay is not hopeless, however.  An average lifetime of 1030 years corresponds to a decay of one proton per year in a collection of 1030 protons.  One proton or neutron per day will decay in 1,000 metric tons of matter.  Experiments are being carried out to detect proton or neutron decay in Ohio, Tokyo, Utah, South India, Italy, and Minnesota. So far no proton has been observed to decay, but the vigil will continue.

 QUR'ANIC PREDICTIONS 

     As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an does not specifically mentions that protons or bound neutrons decay.  However one has to infer it from the following ayath, which were presented elsewhere by the author (8).

 

"For everything there is a time prescribed."

                                    Qur'an, Surah 13:38

 

According to this ayah, there is a time limit for everything.

Nothing can last forever.

 

"Everything (that exists) will perish, save His countenance."

                                     Qur'an, Surah 28:88

 

     This is the most remarkable ayah, which clearly says that everything (that exists) will perish, except His countenance.  This prediction is applicable to both animate and inanimate objects.  From this ayath one can infer that protons and bound neutrons will decay.

Allah has set a measure for all things. Surah  65:3

  This ayath says that there are limits for all things, including spatial dimensions and time.  It stimulates our thinking to revise our concepts of Infinity and eternity 

With regard to human beings the Qur'an says: 

He it is Who has created you from clay, and has decreed a term for you.  A term is fixed with Him.  Yet still you doubt! Surah 6: 2 

 There will be for you on earth a habitation and a provision for a while (time). Surah 7: 24

He keeps that (soul) for which He has ordained death and dismisses the rest till an appointed term.  Lo!  Herein verily are portents for people who take thought. Surah 39: 42 

 There are several ayath in the Qur'an which set term on nations: 

And every nation hath its term, and when its term comes, they cannot put it off an hour nor yet advance it. Surahs 7: 34, 10: 49, 40: 5, 23: 43 168 

The following ayah is difficult to interpret!

For every message (announcement) there is a limit of time and you will come to know it. Surah 6: 67

 

CONCLUSION

 

      There are four forces in nature such as gravitation, electromagnetism, and weak and strong force.  James Clerk Maxwell showed that electricity and magnetism are one force and called it electromagnetic force.  In 1967 Salam and Weinberg showed that electromagnetism and weak force to be one force and called it electroweak force.  For this theory they were awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979.  Glashow and Georgi in 1973 came up with a unified theory of the weak, the strong and the electromagnetic forces based on SU (5) symmetry. This is popularly known as the GUT or Grand Unification Theory.  This unification is possible at about 10-29 cm or at energy of about 1015 times the mass of the proton.  The unification force is mediated by X particle whose rest mass energy is about 1015 GeV.  This particle is not feasible to be created experimentally as the energy required to produce it cannot be achieved in the laboratory.  However, there is indirect evidence as X particles can do something no other particles can do: they can transform a quark into a lepton or a quark into an antiquark.  This process puts in question the very stability of matter. In other words it predicts the decay of proton or neutron (bound in the nucleus). Certain ayath in the Qur'an predict that all matter will perish and there is a time limit for everything.  Thus Qur'an predicts the decay of protons and hence supports the Grand Unification Theory (GUT).

 

REFERENCES

 

(1).  Syed, 1. B.: Qur'anic foundations of the Anthropic Principle.

                  Muslim Scientist 16: 99 - 105, 1987

 

(2).  Bucaille, M.: Bible, the Qur'an and Science. North American Trust Publications, Indianapolis, 1979

 

(3).   Sarton, G.: Life of Science. Books for Libraries Press, New York, 1971, pp. 146 - 166.

 

(4).   Syed, 1.B.: Attitude of a Muslim Scientist at human embryology.

                 MAAS Journal of Islamic Science 1988

 

(5).  Shanavas, T. 0.: The origin and fate of the universe according to science and the Holy Qur'an. The Monitor Nov/Dec: 17 - 23, 1987. Published from Toledo, Ohio

 

(6).  Georgi, H: A unified theory of elementary particles and forces.  Scientific American, April 1981, pp. A8-63

 

(7).  Weinberg, S.: Unified Theories of Elementary-Particle Interaction.

                    Scientific American July 1974, pp. 50 - 59.

 

(8).   Syed, 1. B.; The Theory of Limitations. JIMA 17: 100, 1985

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                                                                                                                                               

                                                                                   

 

 

 

                                                           

 

 

 

 

                                               

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


                                                                                                                                                                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                            

 

 

 

 

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