Meaning of Surat Al- Fatiha- A Scientific Paradigm
By Syed Ahsani
Former Ambassador of Pakistan, living in Dallas, Texas.
Attachment I Reviewing the meaning of Surat al-Fatiha,
some more aspects have come to light These are given hereunder::
Bi Ism il-Lah,Al-Rahman Ar-Rahim Inner
Variously named as Opener, Mother of Books, Victory etc, Surat Al-Fatiha also has the quality of curing afflictions-spiritual and physical. Auzu -bi Llahi Mina Shaitan al-Rajim I seek protection and refuge, with Succor of Allah, the Repository of all Hopes and Aspirations, from all Evil of Satan, the Rejected , ever Distant from all Good.
Bismillahi Al- Rahman Al -Rahim
With the Glorious Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, and Sustaining Source of All Mercy in this World and Hereafter.
Alhamdo Lillah.e. Rabbil Aazlalmeen, Ar Rahman Al Rahim
All thanks and praise be for Allah, the Sustainer and Cherisher of the, Universes, the Cosmos, indeed the Entire Creation-for its Existence, Sustenance and Cherishing. Indeed, He is The Benevolent and Merciful to the Highest Unlimited, Infinite Degree Alhamdo Li-lllahi All Thanks and Praise are due to Allah, the Creator, the Sovereign, and the Supreme. Ali I Ibne Abu Talib (RA) said Allah chose this word for Himself. According to Ibanez Abbas Al Hamid is expression of thanks. In response Allah says my slave expressed thanks to me. Amen Islamic also believes that Al-Hamid covers both sense of Praise, as is commonly translated, as well as thanks. To Him for His infinite Mercy and Bounty. According to Ibane Kathie, when some one also said-Yaw Rib Lack al Hamid Kaman Yanbaghili Jalali Wajhika wa-Azim Sultanik, Prophet stated appreciatively that Allah directed the Angels to copy it, as this person will be rewarded on the Day of Encounter .i.e. ,in the Hereafter. Rabbil Aalameen-Creator of all Land, Sea, Space, All Creation ( in Earth or Heavens)or, or anything in between,-known or unknown-Humans and Jinns every thing with Soul-600 Worlds- on Land, 400 under the Sea, some say a total of 17,000 Worlds, apart from those being created every day-(500 Galaxies were discovered recently). The exact number being known to Allah. Rab means Owner, Supreme Leader, and Authority Reformer for Good. The Word Rab, being exclusively reserved for Allah only cannot and should not be used as name for any one, except with prefix-Abdul Viewed in the context of Einstein's Theory of Relativity, E (Energy_ is equal to Mass (Matter) multiplied by the square of the speed of light (186,000--miles per second)-Alameen refers to Mass or Matter i.e., Universes, Cosmos and Creation, essentially Special Concept? What is relationship of Cosmos to Space, Allah knows best .Al Rahman Al Rahimi: Al-Rahman is the highest degree of Mercy for Allah says I am Rahman, I created Mercy, I will unite with one who promotes it, will sever from one who breaks relations.Al Rahman is reserved for Allah, encompassing all kinds of Mercy and Blessings for All Creation while Rahim is for Bellievers- wa Kana bil Momimin Rahima. As name Rahman is reserved exclusively for Allah, forbidden for others-Abdul Rahman is permissible. Amin Islahi: After transitory existence is over; believers will be blessed with Allah's Mercy and Vision in everlasting hereafter Malik e- Yom el Din For, He is the Absolute Owner, Sovereign, King of Kings, of this transient Cosmos since its Creation, and the Hereafter-the Eternity- where on completion/winding up of Cosmos -its and its Inmates -Existence, Evolution and Action, when they will enter an Eternal, Never ending, Interminable, Infinite Era an Era where they will be adjudged for their actions, and their deeds evaluated according to how the Beings lived and passed though the Trials for which purpose they were created. Malik-e Yom i-ddin-Master of the Day of Judgmental usually translated is very restrictive in meaning., Ignoring the vast canvass intended in this short verse, the kernel of Sura Fatiha. Ibne Kathir avers that Deen also means Mazhab and Shari at-faith and code-, the laws of the land, whose Author or Originator's obedience is obligatory, for He is the One who is to recompense our deeds with the rewards and punishment, according to their nature-good or evil. Maalik and Malik are two well-known recitations. Besides, Maleek and Malikee have also been recited. All 4 pronunciations are correct, Specifying the Day of Judgment points to the fact that no body else will claim Ownership that day except Allah.According to Ibne Kathir, or attributing ownershhip- Milkiat to Allah on the Judgment Day should not imply that apart from the Day of Judgment,His ownership-Sovereinty- is excluded No, far from it.. .Earlier, Allah has defined Himself as Rabbul Aalimeen-Cherisher of Cosmos or the entire Creation, including all the Cosmos and Hereafter which is Everlasting, Interminable, Abiding. According to Amin Islahi Deen has five 5 meanings:1).Madhab and Shariat-Faith and Code from the Beginning till the end of Time; 2).Law of the Land; 3).Obedience and Submission;4).Reward and Punishment;5) Beginning to End of Time Referring to the meaning of Deen as the Day of Judgment, Caliph Omar Bin Khattab (May Allah be Pleased with him) said Take Account of your Self before you are judged; weigh your deeds before they are weighed in the Scale; be prepared for the Encounter before Allah from whom no deed of yours is hidden for Allah has stated the Day you will brought in His presence, nothing will remain secret. In scientific perspective, Deen refers to Dahar or Time for which Shariat has been given to all being, (Jinns and Humans) At the beginning in the first verse, Alameen alludes to, (as explained before), Mass (Matter). What then is the relationship of Mass to Space? Is it not that Mass is afloat in Space. What then is Space? What is the relationship of Space with Time? Scientists say Energy intersects Space and Time. Allah knows best. Iyyaka Naabudo Wa Iyyaka Nastaeen Iyyya means Light of the Sun; Ibadat or Worship amounts to lowering one self i.e., become lowly-.Maabad means the way which is lowly. In Sharia it Ibadat or Worship means Love, Concentration and Meditation mixed with Eat According to Ibne Abbas,the verse meansâ€:O.Our Lord! We recognize You and fear You In other words a believers is saying we do not worship anybody else nor will do it in future; do not rely on anone nor will in future. The essence of Sura Fatiha is abandoning all Shirk-i.e. Associating partners with Him. Iyyaks Nastaeen testaments to negation of oneâ€™s strength, power, entrusting all affairs to Supreme Being. In other words, a believer says we deny our strength and power and entrust every thing, big or small, to You (Allah) the Most High. Here Tawhidi paradigm is being reaffirmed by saying. "We believe in Your Oneness (Tawhid) only and fear You only-as Creator, Cherisher, and Sustainer- Iin other words, implying: that Allah is the only repository of hope .and fear... .After Iyyaka Naabudo , the real purpose being worship of Allah which comes first, follows Iyyyaka Nastaeen meaning "we beg and seek Your f total help and succor in pursuing. the path and essence of Worship i.e. Constancy. as well as Provisions of life. (Amin Islahi says Allah is so generous that he grants provision to every being without his asking.) Use of plural tense, especially by Imam in congregation means one is calling Him on behalf of all- be it family, relations and all believers in congregation or outside. Notes At the start of the prayer, after Niyyat (intention), protection of Allah is sought, in a soft voice or loudly from Satan, the Rejected one. Before starting recitation of Quran.the Messenger (PBUH) asked Abuzar Ghaffari "to seek protection of Allah from Satan of Humans or Jinns. Its recitation after reading Quran is also recommended in order to remove the pride of recitation of Quran At the start of Sura Fatiha, after seeking protection from Satan iin the first Rakat, Bismillah-ir-Rahman- ir Rahim, is to be recited, (not in the other Rakats)...Tadition says anything not started with Bismillah-(Name of Allah ( Isme-e-Azam) is devoid of blessing.. Gabriel asked the Messenger (PBUH) to say it before starting the first Revelation. In 5 daily Prayers, it is obligatory to recite Sura Fatiha, otherwise, if one forgot,Sijda Sahav-extra prostration at he end is done When Imam is reciting Fatiha loudly, followers may recite it softly (not obligatory, they can remain silent) Qudsi Tradition says " In Sura Fatiha is half is mine, the other half are is for believersâ€™, tantamount to entreating from Me. Of 7 Verses, three and half are for Praise and Thanks of Allah, the Supreme Being. When he says Alhamdo Lillahe Rabbil Alameen, Allah replies:"My slave thanked me"; when he says Al- Rhaman- ir- Rahim,Allah avers:"My slave praised me"; when he says Malike Yomiddin,Allah acknowledges :"My slave glorified me". Allah says elsewhere:"O Messenger when your spirit despairs due to enemy opposition, resort to reciting Subhanallah and Alhmadolillah expressing thanks and praise of Me and prostrate."Go on worshiping till your final hour-death. Al-Rhazes believes that the station of Worship stands superior to Messenger hood. A .Sufi of Iran, Mulla Sadruddin Shirazi has aptly described four stations that a Mystic undergoes 1) From Creation to Creator 2) Merger or Stay with Creator --Fana Fillah; 3) Descent from Creator to Creation; 4) Living with Creation. PART II. Revie-hing the meaning of Surat al-Fatiha,some more aspects have come to light These are given hereunder::. Bi Ism il-Lah,Al-Rahman Ar-Rahim This is considered as the fiirst verse of Surat AL-Fatiha-not revealed on any other Prophet .By majority of Exegetes-Mufassirin, it was the first Wahi-Revelation-by Gabrial in Cave of Hira: "Say Istaiz billah Al-sami -ul -Alim wa Min al- Shatan Al- Rajim Etymolgically,,according to Abdullah bi-Abbas,Allah comes orignally from Al-Ilah-(Lwas was added to ILah,pronouncing ALLAH_ Be stands for 'Buland the Highfest ; Sin signifies Noo,Light; Mim refers to Mumlikat,King,Sovvereign i.e., ;ALLAH -MAABOOD in all dimensions. Allah ( Lah preceded by Alif-Al-lah) has been reserved for the Creator of Cosmos;even by Pagans of Mecca who did not consider any t one eual to Allah,recognizng other Gods as inter cessionary(Islanihi).Allah is the Great Name-Ismi Azam,the first of99 names,memorize them earns Paradise. According to Razi-Al-Razes-Allah' has 5000 Names (1000 each in Zaboor,Torah,Injil,Quran and Hadith. Acording to Hamid Alger, the meaning of Bismillah is by means of the Name of Allah(SWT),not translatable-the ,paraise belongs to Allah-Compassanate,the Merciful.As 'ALif' precedes all alphbets,it signifies that Divine Essence-Ahdiat-oneness of Essence, exists before the enttire creation. Divinine Essence has hidden presence-- in His creation-It is there -zahir,,but not there-Ikhfa in mystic paralnce.It is there,concealed beneath all presence-appearances, multiplicity-.Also,absence of Alif In Bismillah indicates simultaneity of presence and absence,signifying that not only Revelation began but did the entire Cration -by means of the name of ALlah. Mystics say the'Pen' was commanded by Allah to write Bimillah-it took 5 00 years to write Bismillah:? The entirety of Creation is manifested in two forms:a).Creation,and b).Revelation. The significance of 'Ism'-the Name Allah,preceded by 'Be' translates: 'By means of the Name of Allah i.e,the Name and the Named are intrinsically inter -linked-by means which He describes Himself-thus, Allah is not translatable- Allah is I'sme' Zaat,indicating Divine Essence-The Great Name-Isme Azam.,as Mystics describe it. Since Divine Essence is inter-related with Its Attributes-it indicates linkage between Zaat and Sifaat..The 99 Names are not distinct or divided segments of His Being,but they are co-existent,co-terminous,simultaneous; at the same time-with the entirety of His Attributes reflected in His Creation..Manifested as multiple,but it is One within,drawn together or proceeding from the One Essence-indicated by the word Allah- encompassing all His Names and His Attributes. Finaly, the Essence or Reality-haqiqat,uluhiat-is designated by the name Allah,for it collects,(Jame),gather together,resumes within itself all of the Divine names and attributes. Whatever is present-in abject surrender.to HIm in Cosmos and Space- belongs to Allah,,is created by Him-with whatever modification/alteration that He desires He does it without consulting or seeking help from and associating anyone..None can stop Him and change his intention, nor anyone can obstruct His order or alters His will. One endowed with Grandeur/Greatness,Power,Justice,Wisdom, Lateef (Oveeing the Minutest) and Merciful,Unique,One,Samad ( independent of others),Nothing is hidden from His Knowledge. Commanded by Allah to write (Scriptures) at the time of creation of Cosmos ,the Pen submitted-what to write;Allah then revealed the verse-Bi ismi Allah Al-Rahman al Rahim-(Refers to Noor Muhammadi on the Internet.) Recitation of Bismillah-with Allah's noor-Light-brought great blessing, from Allah Al -Hamdo li-llahi Rab-ul-Alameen, All praise and gratititute be to Allah,the mainspring of all Mercy,Blessing,Beauty and Perfection in all dimensions of His Creation.-Rabbe ZidniTahayyiran- O;:Lord enhance my wonder Al-Hamd means both Gratitude and Praise.Ali(RAU)says Allah likes we thanks for HIm,Ibne Abbas(RAU) says when we thank for Him,Allah in answer says: My slave thanked me.Kaab Ahbar(RAU) says Sana is Praise and DA(Prayer).Saying Al Hamdo Li-Lah is more valuable than the gift given. Some Companion said:Ya Rab laka al-hamd, kama yan-baghi li jalal- i wajhika wal azim-u-sultanika- Oh: Lord,to you is all praise and thanks,as is required by the Awe of your Countenance and the Grandeur of your Power.Allah asked the Angels to preserve it as he said, for,I will reward him on My Encounter with him in Hereafter Preceding Rab is Allah-the Essence-followed by no other attribute except Rab,indicating manifestation of Essence by both Revelation and Creation.Rab means the Lord or Master,Parwardigar in Persian,containing both Authority and Nourishment-authority for nurturing,developing moving forward to a set goal, ineluctably under His authority, Rab signifies Owner,Dispenser,Lord,Reformer.It vf cis reserved exclusively for Allah,none else.Al-alamin expresses total and entire existing things,not only in this world or worlds in spacee-the Universe or Cosmos but all things that exist. Rabbil alamin means "Lord or Master of the Worlds,Parwardigar,indicating authority and nourishment,authority not for domination for nurturing,developing,moving forwardin teh directin of a goal.Allah is Rab in that sense that he nurtures the creation that he has bright no being,under his authority ineluctably. Al Alamin-the worlds,the universes the totality totality of all existence- what we perceive is only one single alam.Related to 'ilm' means it is a sign,an indication,a means of knowledge.Looking at the order of Allah's creation,within our cognition,we gain knowledge of their Creator in all dimensions of His creation Plurality-alalamin-alludes to a certain mode of consciousness in all dimensions of His creation. Alone in his presence of free will ,his devoted worship of Allah, indicates a mode of consciousness of the entirety of existence that Allah has created, Also Alamin indicates that all created being has a degree or mode of consciosness pemitting it to engage in glorification and praise of Allah -by speevh or means known to Alalh Himself.-Lisanalhal Coming to Alhamu lillahi rabbilalamin arrahmanir rahim.-Repetition of attribute rahman cnnects with attribute rabbil alamin Allah is rahman through His exercise of rubuiyya,his nurturing authority over the entirety of Hs creation.By providing all the requissites one needs, He is exercisng the attribute of rahman. Precedin maaliki yaumiddin "the Possessor- the Lord of the Day of Judgement",attribute rahim relates to Allah's Mercy,by sending His Guidance revealed through the Prophets to lead to salvationi nHereafter Commentary: In Syriac,Hebrew and Arabic,Rab means Nourishing its wider sense- Huwa insh al-shain halan, fa halan ila haddi tamam.Example:mother's nourishing a child from birth to adulthood. Rabbul Aa lamin signifies taht after creation,,mmmmmmm He has provided means of nourishment also WA FIL ARDI AYATO LIL MOO QININ,WA FI ANFUSKUM,AFALA TUBSIROON(51:20,21) Apart from the means of existence,there is Rububiat -system of distribution of nourishment, according to an order and measure, suited to the needs, natural capacity as if the potential energy is awaiting expression. . .Quran refers to Qadr-measure and miqdar-quantity. (23:18,19);(15:21);(13:87u. );(54:49) Also Quran says Rubibiat necessitates distribution of water according to an order and quantity (30:48) Elements of Life are proportionate - Air - ever present in space-is more essential than water ; next is water(wa jalna min al-ma kullo shain((21,30),below and on the earth.Then follows food- present for creation every where-Sun,Air,Earth all devoted to provide sustenance(45:13). Similarity and Harmony are universally visible in the System of Nourishment-Rububiat. every where,varying in the same order-birth,adulthood and apogee,followed by weakness and decline,resulting in death (30:15;39:21) All system of nourishment and means of nourishment,mainspring of growth and life giving are universal. Malum shud ki haich malum na shud-Discovered that nothing was discovered. Akin to rhe ISME ZAT-Alllah-words are found prior to Prophet (PBUH) e.g.,ilah (Syriac), /iloh (Hebrew), ilah( pagan)-meaning Truth,Reality Light of Heavens and Earth (Creation)Lord,, Al-Quddus (Holy)Al-Salam,(Peace) ,Al-Moomin,Al Mohaimin(Guardian) Al- Aziz (,Strong),Al-Jabbar, al Mutakabbir(?);Subhalah Ammma ushrikoon-glory be Allah from all whom tehy associate with, Ho wa-lAl -Khaliq(Creator),al-Bari(?) al-Musawwir-Designer)to Him are the best names,yusabi la-hoo ma fil samawati wa alard,hoval Aziz ul-Hakim( 56:23,24);Lahu asma al hsana,fadooho biha Wa za al-lazina udhooho doona fi asmaihi-And forsake those who commit shirk in His names Commentary:Allah is One,Unque,no being like Him, nor any one shares His attributes(Sifat)- Tauhid fi zat wal Sifat.Tahwhid fis Sifat-means He alone deserves all worship and it is only His Persona-zat- of Allah who hears and answers the call of humans and accepts them. If you associate someone in your prayers , it tantamounts to associating him with His attributes also. Iyyaka Naabudo wa Iyyyaka Nastaain --signies Tahwhid fil-Zaat ,Tawhid fil Sifat. Reality of Allah's beauty:Negation of Similitude and Perfection of Transcedence,purity, and Immaculate Laisa ka mislihi Shain-There is nothng like Him( 42-11);La tudriku a-absar,wa Huwa yudrikohu al-absar Sight does not perceive Him but He sees those who strive to view/ visualise him.-An epitome of Sincerity.The Quranic Light (Tajalli)emobiment of Torah revealed to Moses who urged to view HIm and was told:You can not view me ,but look at the mountain (7-143).And it turned tnto ashes Difference between Tanzeeh(Transcendance,Purity,Above all faults)- and Taateel: One above similarity in godly Attribute and higher isTanzih;Taatil is toto takethe negation of Tanzih(not Tanscentant,impure faulty)to such an apogee(summit) that is left fo human thinkingand imagination Quran's Tasawwur (imagination is perfection of Tanzeeh( fana fillah.In other words,Tanzeeh is above positism,attribute,similitude.Exaggeration amounts toSimilarity;likewise,exaggeration in denial of attribtesreaches Taatil.In reality, Conteemplation of Allah is neither Tashabuh(similarity),nor Taatil-Tanzih is the midle (Taatil--Tanzeeh--Tashabuh).By means of negative conceptualization,,Existence cannot be separated fromExistence To Salafis like Ibne Tamiyya Truth is beyond logical definition. To Vedant schools- Neoplatonic and Alexandria- Being has 2 aspects:a) possible to imagine, .such as Elements,Intelligence and Self,b)impossible to imagine is Absolute Reality/Truth. To Sufis, Martaba Itlaq-Rank of Definability/Applicability is described as Ahdiat- Oneness/Uniqeness-as proclaimed by Bilal,despite torture.Qul: Ho wa-Allah-o Ahad-Say Allah is One and Unoque Al Rahman Al-Rahim: After the name of the Essence,Allah-in Bismillah and elsewhre-these cognate names appear together. Translated as "Compassinate" and "Merciful" or the inverse,they are derived from 'rahma' " mercy"representing different facets of Divine Mercy.Despite all names being coterminous with Essence,Rahman has primacy (verse:17:110) meaning we may call upon Allah or al-Rahman,implying that it comes closer toEssence than any other name..Rahmanhas a very broad and comprehensive sense -primary mode inwhihc Allah manifests Himself by means=ns of both revelation and creation. It is an inimitable attribute of Allah who bestows His Mercy and Compassion to his entire creation,providing its materia land non-material needs,reaching all -mineral,vegetabel,animal and human realms(both believrs and non-beleivers,virtuous and and the sinner)-every one benefits from the attribute al-Rahman.On the other hand,Rahim means conveying too humans the means of guidance,salvation in Hereafter,extending to humans and in them only believers,excuding no-humans and non-believers.Also, Rahmans relates primarity to this Cosmos or Creation. while Rahim to Hereafter-He is rahman al-dunya and rahim ul-akhira. Syntactically and semantically,bismillahir rahman rahim is immidiately followed by alhamdu lillah:praise and thanks by means of the very name of Allah,relatingto Essence. Uniquely,excluisvey and unresevedly Al-hamd belongls to Allah,not to any other creation or manifestation for whom 'madh' is used. In other words, He is not only the recepent of hamd-being perfect,transcenent,above all limitations-but the sole author,origin and not the terminus of praise. We are thus acting as His agents,whereby Allah bears witness to His perfection by means of us.Had it not been forthe Grace and Mercy of Allah,no praise of Allah could take place tby means of 8io words,vocal organs,intention and spiration to praise Him Maliki yaumiddin -the Lord,the King,the Soverign,the Master of the Day of Judgement." Although Allah.is at all times,from beginning to the hend,infinite- timewise- is malik,.but since man forgets that t indeed he is the Lord,the Possessor,the Soverign of all things becomes apparrent on the Day of Resurrection,-in Hereafter. Yaumiddin,The Day of Religion ,Din,signifies a mode of orenting ones life in accordance with Divine Precepts. Following Praise and Thanks to Allah,the Chrisher of the entire Creation, and Rahman-Compassionate from the beginning or Infinity-to Rahim-Merciful to the Infinity, and Soverign of the Cosmos,nay the entire Creation-Here and in Hereafter it is further said: - we now from indirect todirectly addressing-to You we worshp alone and seek only your help,ask your guigdance to the Right Path-Ihdinas Sirat at Musttaqim-Quran and Sunnah-way ofthose whom you blessed -Prophets,Mes-, sengers,Pious,Martyrs,Good -not of those who Rejected and those who went astray despeit receiving guiadance through Messsengers in earlier Holy Scriptures all faiths-Abrahamic andOthers. Viewed in this perspective-following the right path which leads to success in this life and eteranal bliss -Paradise in Hereafter. Looked at deeply,Paradise signifies a realm of ascension to ultimate bliss We are asked to pray Surat aaAl-Fatihain prayer 5 times daily for attainment of Good in this life- in terms of health,abundance, happiness,well being and General Economic Welfare. Of the above-mentioned -Health,Protection and AbundanceoHealth ranksfirst inprority which comes by folllowing tehRight path of Good and Righeousnes After 4 verses in the third person about Allah whom all prasie tnd thanks belong, Allah is adressed in the second person."you alone do we worship andform You alone do we seekhel.p In other words,we begin mention of Allah, as if removed from us,later turning directly towards Him;it It signifies that after evokation, and awareness of Allah,and His attributes, and His exclusive worthiness of prayer and worship we come directly into Hs presence-Prayer is journey towards Allah AFTER ACKNOWLEDGING HIS MAGNIFICENSE,HiS ATTRIBUTES THAT HE ALONE IS WORTHY OF PRAISE AND WORSHIP,WE A ADDRESS HIM DIRECTLY-IYYAKA NA'BUDO WA IYYAKA NSTA'IN According to a Qudsi Tradion,,one portion of Fatiha belongs to Allah in which He is declared worthy of worship and His atributes.In the second portion,belonging to us (al-abd) he puts forward his needs and supplicates Allah (swt). First, we thank Allahand praise Him,2.then we admit our slavery,and 3.we pray to him,beseeching His succour through the means of His worship-wa ttabio Allah al-wasilah-follow iand worship Allah,seeking his succour.? IYYAKA NAABUDO-we worship You alone by abloutioh-fulfilling the apparant conditon;and with concentration-Khuzu wa khushu-the inner dimension without whcih,no parayer is accepted,absolved of show and pride-(khuzu wa Khushu being out ones power-so in this aspect we we beseech Your help,requesting Hi's help in fulfilllig these conditions-apparat and inner. To get our worship to Him accepted,which is dependant on His favor ,we pray " Protect our worshipfrom Satan and worldy entanglements,enabe us to prevail upon them". We rely on Allah (SWT) ,considerng that all woldly help stems from Him for ,to look upto others for succor is foolish and unwise. Mystically, the highest degree is not to look at apparrent means of succor, lest verbal expression and prayer may become a barrier between Him and us..Asked by Gabriel,if any help was needed Ibrahim responded not from you.On Jibril's submission to ask then from Allah ,Abrahm said "His awareness of my state is sufficinet-Hasbihi min sawali,ilmohu bihi hali.To be content on Allah's pleasure is tantamont to prayer.Thus Abraham followed "Iyyyaka Nastaeen-from You alone we seek succor.Likewise,Hell fire will not harm every Muslim Even while on the Bridge-pulsarat-Hell fire will proclaim-"your Lght of Faith extinguishes flames" It is stated Hellfire wil not affect rescuers coming from Paradise to rescue the sinners. To show humility and slavery, we should ask every thing from Him-even the smallest such as tying ones shoe laces. Note: Opinions vary.Others beleive that to ssek help (for prayer) from Messengers and Aulia-Saints is infact seeking Allah's help -for, help is direct or through other means.Istaeen bis-sabr wa -alslat-"seek help with patinece and prayer." Zul Qarnain asked"Auyuni bi-quwwatin-help me with manpower.Jesus implored:'Man Ansari Ii-Allah" Who will give me succor for the sake of Allah" "Cooperate in Good and Piety" says Quran.In encounter with Jaloot- Moses and Aron got victory with Sacred Relics-Fihi mimma taraka Ale Moosa wa Haroon. (MPBUT)hair,clothes wahings which were used later as cure for ailmnets. Finallyaccording to Shabbir Ahmad Usmani,seeking help from the pious as means of Allah's mercy is permissible for, such request for help is in realiy seeking it from Allalh(SWT). Hadith Qudsi:When my slave recites Iyaka Naabudo,wa Iyyaka Nastaeen,Allah (SWT)says this part is common between Me and my slave;I gave my slave what he asked for(in fact without asking and deserving).Such help one seeks from Allah for inclination,guidance,constancy patience-indeed assiatance in prayer and in worldy affairs from Him alone Ihdina as Sirat al-Mustaqim Oh Allah make our heart content over the direction ofstright path;create eagerness towalk o it ;resolve difficlultes therien;saving us from straying on the sideways.To achieve one's goalthe bestway is first to offer praise and tanksfollowed by submitting request.After teh first 3 Versesof praise and tahnks the following 4 verses aredevoted to appeals-first( 3 are for Me,remaing 4 are forMy slave)-What a beautiful manner :first prsise and thanks to Cherisher of the Creation,then demands for self and brother Muslims. It indicates beggar's condition and need as was done by Moses -Inni lima anzalta ila min Khairin faqir-Oh Cherisher whatever good you bestow onme, i am in in need thereof; and Johah prayed: La Ilah Ill anta inni kunto minal zalimin-Except You is none is there to worship,you are the Holy,I am of the sinners. Sirat al-Lazina Anamta Alaihim wa la adduallin. As mentined before,this verse is for us to pray to follow tje path of those on whom were Allah's blessings-Prophets,Pious,Trutful,Martyrs,Angels,Comapanions-based on obedience and worship.. Maghdub signifies Ghazab,anger,wrath-on those who having knowedge of the right Path lost it,wandering ,lost, astray --eg.,the nation of Naoh Aad ,Thamud,Jews -peoplewith knowledge,and Christians who despte knolwdge didnot act onit-Knowlege was thre but Action was missng. Positvel\y,the path of those who were blessed;negativley,excluding those who incurred Your wrath (for violations) or went astray from the right path after finding it. With Allah, the Ultimate Truth' favor in expressing our disenchantment in respect of those who turned their face away and those who went astray ,To put it differrently,craving and beseeching help and contancy to enabe one to stay firm on the right path-,not to tread the path of those who found the right path but turned away,thus deserving Allah's Wrah or were deprived of His Mercy by following innovaions in religion. Put differently:"Show us straight and true path-clear,,not crooked path of obedience Straight way of Book of Allah a strong rope ,rememberance-Zikr- of wisdom,that is the way of Islam,broader in scope than any other paradigm ,none other way is acceptable. Anamta Alaihim It signifies follwoing pious believers.Tradition says:"Ma ara al Mominoona hasana,fa huwa ind Alllahi hasana"-whatever Believers see as 'Good',it is 'Good' according to Allah.Wa Antum Shuhada Allah fil Ard-You are witness of Allah on planet Earth.In other words,believers' tongue is Allah's Pen,meaning that whatever Allah Wills, it is articulated by pious beleivers.Friends of Allah-Wali-are menof Faith,havepiety and are popular among people. Blessings follwowing good deeds consist of 2 types :1)Wordly or Material 2)Deeni or Spiritual.The verse Anamta alaihim-amounts to seeking the way of those who were blessed with spiritual attainments-the Prophets the Truthful, the Martyrs,the Pious. Looked at differently,our blessings whether worldy or spiritual are o f4 categories: 1.Without means Life,Children,infants milk by breast feeding,Guidance of Faith; 2.Through means -worldly acquisitions like job,money food,house, 3) Deeds-Shahada,Prayers,Fasting,Zakat,Haj,Jihad,and 4) Without Deeds-,Innocent,Sinless child ( less than 15) who dies Mystically,these pious beleivers follow way of seekers of Allah,whos Light is showered on them.Going wife,one should seek Allah's blessings in whatever He bestowed.. Ghair Al-Maghdoobe Alaihim (Guide us to the straight path) Not Path of those who incurred Your Wrath.Maghdoob refers to those who are doers of evil deeds (fasiq,fujjar), Evident Rejctors ( kafir) ,denying Allah. Wa La Addallin Nor way of those who, depite recievng message of guidance, lost the way and went astray, meanig non-believers,rejectors of faih-wise actions,having believed in Allah,hyocrites (munafiq). Oh Allah save us from the path of those wh0 incurred your displeasure and who lost the way. Ameen Accord us acceptance (of what we beseeched you)Ameen ist o be siad quietly by follower in congregation as was the practice o Prophet (PBUH). Of 4 things recited by Imam quitley aew:a)Auzo billah min alshaitan al-Rajim,b)Bi ism Allah alrahim,c)Subhank Allah d)Lakal Hamd Notes: Prophet(PBUH)'s and Caliph AbuBakr and Omars' Exegisis-We are enabled to Allh's preferred acts by which Allah was pleased with people and rewarded tehm:MessengersTruthful,Martyrs,Pious-who testified Islam and Messengers,held fast Allah's book,followed commnads,desisted from forbidden acts -way of Prophet(PBUH) and 4 Caliphs,constacy on guidance,beseeching Allah's succour in all states-a fotunate beng who is guarteed by Allahacceptace ofprayer Qudsi Traditon:On both sides ofStraight path an annoncer calls:donot look hither and tither,nor open any sidewa entrance diverting you from straight path.Islam is straight path,walls on either side are limits fixed by Allah=, quitely added:keep us constant on straight path and not divert us therefrom" 3,Coming after Ihdinal siratal mustaqim,Sirat al lazian anamta alihim is relevant for defning Mustaqim as path of the pious-in other words,we asked for the the straight path followed by request for the guide-in the that path having footsteps of the elite toreach the final destination, middle way free from exageration-ghairal maghdub,and minimization-wa laddalin. After worship,surat al fatih is prayed ino order to keep on the right path ofthepious,between extremesas pkious worshipped,not proud of theire worship,askforconstacy. Academicay it s a request totake us tehdesred goal-pray with cleantonguefor,it issnless forother,every onepray for otherfor for oneseld ones tongue is sinful.Underlying point isprayinfor oneseldf lnlysymbolizes selfishness,whihc is a sin,so donot do ii.-what you seek for your self,seek for your brother also. Derived from Istiqamat- straight (for which we pray) whi'hc takes swiftly to teh destinatil,without any difficulty and risk of going astray.. Sirat al -mustaqim-middle way without extremes in faith-both in aqeeda and aamal;On the one extreme is Shariat of Musa in which Zakat was one fourth part; diry cloth or skin was to be burnt;worship was perfomed only in Synagues; repentance was acceptable only by undergoing severe punshment. On the other extreme is the Shariat of Issa which is very lenient,wine and pig being permisisble In Islamic Shariat,Zakat is leviable is one tortieth part,payable in easy instalments,;worship is possible everywhere. Great sins incluindg Shirk iswiped out by repentance;to cleanse,3 methods are permissible:a) squeezing diry cloth withclean water,b) rubbing the utensil,c) diry milk and grain can be washed with clean milk and grain mixed; in the absence of water prayer with tayyamum is allowed;wine and pig are forbidden as they intoxicate and create diseases. Anger is shamalessnes and is against self esteem, ,except for the sake of Allah While angry,veins of the forehead of Prophe t(PBUH) vibrated. Likewise good manners demands that one should dislike enemies of faith and exercise circuspection in secular domain MysticallyAllah'sguidance(sucking milk by child)withoutasking but crying;sensibilty,sistinguishing good frombad;wisdonby arguemnets;;DivineGuidance from Messengers and pious.Divided in 2 parts,Divine guiadance,,for entire creation-guidance of visbleactions of faith;Speciaaal Guiadance,aquired by chosen ones from Llight of Prohethoodandguidance for,selcted few are born Divine c onsciousfor who,tehfirst guidance isspecial (Messenger(PBU)prostrated whenborn;Jesus siad:Ia ma slaveofAlh-an Abdallh); Allahsayes about Yahya:We gave him wisdon inchildhood;toour Prophet,the first Verse was 'read ie rememberance ofAllah Every thing has a source:Oceanof water;Sunof lightlikewise,Prophet(PBUH)is source of all guidace. Plurlity in Ihdianar refers to the whole congregation,which becomes conscious of reality- mystical path -tantamount to saying:" we have stepped into wilderness of quest for You as the detination , for which we need guidance from You. According to Sufis straight Path-Suluk-ouhgt to be based on Love and Consciousness.The Salik- Wayfarer-is superior to Meged with Divine.-Majzub.Moses lost consciousness,but in Asencion- to Divine-Meraj-our Prophet(PBUH)remained smiling According to great lady Mystic-Rabia Basri-Wayfare-sali-in 4 states:i1)n the Path till death,2)after it one is guardian of his deeds like awayfarer,3)then .request forablity tofollow the Srat al Mustaqim-straight Path.3) cannot reach distnationwithout a Guide4) Oh Lord!Yooure neare than Jugular veing,but we lost the way Mysticallly,accordibng to Sadruddin Shirazi-aka Mulllah Sadra,there are 4 paths:1.from creation toCreatin 2.from creation toCreator-known as Sulook 3.Union withCreator-Fan Fillah 4.from Creator to Creation-Baqa billlah.When asked bout it,Baqi billah,great Sufi o fDelhi askedk the questione to ask from the horse rider who comes to lead his funeral prayer.When th emasked rider finished the paryer and embarke on his horse to leave,teh Murid aske teh'meaning of Baqa Billah.Keeping silent,he lifted his mask,reveling that it was Baqi Billah himself.who led his own prayer..Subhallah In answer to a question Who is rhe Rider and who is on Foot by the Guide who was riding the camel ,on their way to Haj ,Ithe Great Mystic Ibrahim Adham who was walking on foot said: Patient in Trails;Thankful in Blessings; Content- on Destiny; Sublimating my Self,Uncertain of life, I ride.The Guide replied:"Indeed you are the Rider and I am the one on foot." Constacy in Faith once is superior to1000 miracles-(Karamaat) jumping into Sea on Allah's commmand ( Jonah);sacrifce of his son and jumping into Fire,( Abahim) ;Becoming Disiciple despite being Prophet ( Moses before Khizr) ,sacrifice of 100 horses by Sulaiman on missing his Asr prayer- such are their prayers :"Oh Allah grant me Guidance"..
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