Mughira ibn Shu'ba
or Mugheera ibn Shu'ba (Arabic: المغيرة بن شعبة بن أبي عامر بن مسعود الثقفي) was one of the more prominent companions of Muhammad.
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He belonged to the tribe of Thaqif of Ta'if.
Mughira had a dialogue with both Muqawqis, Vicegerent of Egypt and Caesar.
Mughira was impressed by the dialogue with Muqawqis. On his
"Middling height; big eyes with red capillaries showing in them, his complexion would be red and white. He would use coarse clothes and eat ordinary food. He would not be afraid of the greatest power; whoever would fight against him, he would face him. His companions would be prepared to sacrifice their lives at his slightest indication, and would regard him dearer than their own offsprings, mothers, fathers and brothers. From one harem he would stay in another Harem whose land would be rocky and where date palms would be growing in abundance. His faith would be that of Ibrahim (A.S.)! He shall not adopt the way of the arrogant. His Prophethood shall be for all. The entire earth shall be his prayer Carpet".
Mughira was so moved by talks that he went to Muhammad and accepted Islam.
He became a convert to Islam after the battle of Taif in 628. On conversion to Islam he took part in all the battles. He was a brave fighter. He lost an eye in the battle of Yamama. During the caliphate of Umar, Utba ibn Ghazwan was the Governor of Basra while Mughira was the Deputy Governor. Utab ibn Ghazwan died in 639, and Mughira became the Governor of Basra.
During a Military Expedition two Generals namely Mughira and Nufay ibn al-Harith developed some dispute.
There was already some animosity between Mughira and Ziad
ibn Abiya (relative of Abu Bakara Thaqeefi), and the latest dispute added fuel
to the fire. During a prayer, Mughira was stopped by Abu Bakar from leading a
prayer on the context that Mughira was seen in an Objectionable Position by
both Abu Bakara and Ziad so Mugheer cannot lead a prayer. Both of them also
written a complaint against Mughira and sent it to Umar in
Umar called both the parties in
Abu Bakrah insisted that Mughira was guilty of fornication with Umm Jamil. Umm Jamil belonged to the same tribe as that of Mughira and was a widow.
Abu Bakra Thaqeefi house across the street faced the house of Mughira. One day a strong wind blew and the windows of the houses of Abu Bakra and Mughira got opened through the force of the wind. He saw through the window that in this house Mughira was locked in an uncompromising state with a woman. He thought that the woman was Umm Jamil. He had some friends with him, and they also saw Mughira involved with a woman.
Abu Bakrah refused to pray behind Mughira wrote to Caliph Umar accusing Mughira of adultery. The report was endorsed by four witnesses who had seen Mughira in an uncompromising state with a woman. Umar took prompt action. Umar appointed Abu Musa as the Governor of Basra and removed Mughira from the office. Mughira was summoned to Madinah to face trial. Abu Bakra and the other witnesses who had made the complaint were also summoned to Madinah.
At the trial, Mughira pleaded not guilty. His defence was
that the woman in question was his wife and not Umm Jamil. With great
indignation he averred that Abu Bakra
and the men with him had no right to interfere in his privacy. Abu Bakra on the other hand maintained that
the woman was Umm Jamil. Three other witnesses corroborated the statement of
Abu Bakra. The fourth witness Ziyad
stated that he had seen the event, but he had not seen the face of the woman
and did not know who she was. The other witnesses were cross examined, and it
was found that there were some weak points in their evidence. They were asked
whether the woman had her back or her face toward them. They said that she had
their back to them. They tried to make out that even from her back she could be
identified as Umm Jamil. They argued that the scandal of Mughira and Umm Jamil
was very common in
Under the Quranic law in order to press the charge of adultery definite evidence of four witnesses was necessary. As in this case the fourth witness was not sure of the identification of the woman, Mughira was given the benefit of doubt and acquitted. Abu Bakra and his companions who had levelled the charge were punished with lashes for making a charge which could not be established.
After the whipping, Abu Bakrah still said, "I spoke the truth and the man did do what I said."
Umar motioned to whip him again but Ali said, "If you do, then have the other one stoned!" i.e. the testimonials would now amount to four.
In spite of his acquittal, Mughira was not restored to the office of the Governor, and was detained in Madinah. He made some show of indignation at having been treated shabbily in a case which was false. Umar called him to his presence and issued the warning: "O Mughira offer thanks to God that full evidence was not forthcoming against you, and you have been saved from disgrace by a technical flaw. Grounds of suspicion against you were very much there, and I have given you the benefit of doubt. Remember that if the evidence was complete, you would have been stoned to death." (From the lives of the Caliphs, Alim CD).
In 643 Umar appointed Mughira as the Governor of Kufa. When Uthman became the Caliph, Mughira continued in his office for one year, and was thereafter deposed to make room for the appointment of Sa'ad b Abi Waqas according to the testament of Umar.
Mughira participated in the migration to
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