Women, Islam, and Hijab
But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. Every man praying or prophesying having his head covered, dishonoreth his head. But every woman that prayeth or prophesieth with her head uncovered dishonoreth her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn or shaven; but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered. For a man indeed ought not to cover his head, forasmuch as he is the image and glory of God: but the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman; but the woman of the man. For this cause ought the woman to have power on her head because of the angels.
For more information about veiling in the Judeo-Christian Tradition, see Women in Islam Versus Women in the Judeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and the Reality by Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem.
Among Muslim women, the debate about hijab takes many forms. Many believe that the veil is a way to secure personal liberty in a world that objectifies women. Several women have argued that hijab allows them freedom of movement and control of their bodies. Understood in such terms, hijab protects women from the male gaze and allows them to become autonomous subjects. Others have argued that the veil only provides the illusion of protection and serves to absolve men of the responsibility for controlling their behavior.
The fact that Western colonizers took over the paternalistic defense of the Muslim woman's lot characterized any changes in her condition as concessions to the colonizer. Since the external aspects of women's liberation, for example, the neglect of the veil for western dress, were often emulations of Western women, women's liberation was readily identified as succumbing to foreign influences (Ibid, vii).
written in the 70's, Mernissi's work sheds light on more recent events like the
reinstitution of mandatory veiling by Afghanistan's Taliban regime.
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Full-text Articles on Women and Islam
Women's Issues in Third World Countries--Discussion on
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven, CT.: Yale UP, 1992.
Badran, Margot and Miriam Cooke, editors. Opening the Gates: A Century of Arab Feminist Writing. London: Virago, 1990.
Engineer, Asghai Ali. The Rights of Women in Islam. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock and Basima Qattan Bezirgan, editors. Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak. Austin: Texas UP, 1977.
IBRASH. Hijab: The Muslim Woman's Mode of Dressing According to the Qur'an and Sunnah. Lagos: International Printing Press, 198--.
Mernissi, Fatima. Beyond the Veil: Male-Female Dynamics in a Modern Muslim Society. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975.
-----. The Forgotten Queens of Islam. Trans. Mary Jo Lakeland. Minneapolis,MN: Minnesota UP, 1993.
-----. Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World. Trans. Mary Jo Lakeland. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1992.
-----. The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women's Rights in Islam. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1991.
-----. Women's Rebellion and Islamic Memory. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Zed Books, 1996.
Nasir, Jamal J. The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Under Modern Islamic Legislation. London: Graham & Trotman Ltd., 1990.
Saadawi, Nawal el. The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World. Trans. Sherif Hetata. Boston: Beacon Press, 1982.
Sabbagh, Suha, editor. Arab Women: Between Defiance and Restraint. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1996.
Sabbah, Fatna. Women in the Muslim Unconsciousness. Trans. Mary Jo Lakeland. New York: Pergamon Press, 1984.
Shaarawi, Huda. Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist 1879-1924. Trans.& ed. Margot Badran. New York: The Feminist Press, 1987.
Silverman, Kaja. Threshold of the Visible World. New York: Routledge, 1996.
Toubia, Nahid. Women of the Arab World--The Coming Challenge: Papers of the Arab Women's Solidarity Association Conference. Trans. Nahed el Gamal. Cairo: AWSA Conference, 1988.
Tucker, Judith E., editor. Arab Women: Old Boundaries, New Frontiers. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1993.
"Veiled Visions/Powerful Presences: Women in Postrevolutionary Iranian Cinema." In the Eye of the Storm: Women in Postrevolutionary Iran. Ed. Mahnaz Afkhami and Erika Friedl. London and New York: I.B.Taurus and Syracuse University Press, 1994. 131-150.
Zuhur, Sherifa. Revealing, Reveiling: Islamist Gender Ideology in Contemporary Egypt. Albany: SUNY Press, 1992.
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