SOME INFORMATION ABOUT I’TIKAAF
BY: M.S. QASMI
I’tikaaf literally means to seclude oneself and technically it refers to secluding oneself with an intention of I’tikaaf in a Masjid where five daily Salaah are performed.
TYPES OF I’TIKAAF
There are three types of I’tikaaf; Waajib, Sunnah and Nafl.
It is an I’tikaaf which a person makes obligatory on himself by making a conditional or unconditional vow.
It is the I’tikaaf performed during the last ten days of Ramazaan. If some people of the locality perform then it will be accomplished from the rest. But if none does then all will be sinful.
There is no specific time for Nafl I’tikaaf. It can be performed for a short period of time. Therefore, it is desirable to make the intention of I’tikaaf when entering Masjid.
TIME FOR SUNNAH I’TIKAAF
It commences from the sunset of the 20th of Ramadhaan and ends as the crescent of Shawwaal is sighted. Therefore, one who intends to perform I’tikaaf for the last ten days should enter the Masjid on the 20th of Ramadhaan before the sun sets and stay therein till the crescent of Shawwaal is sighted.
FACTORS ESSENTIAL FOR I’TIKAAF
Ø To be a sane Muslim
Ø To be clean from major impurities
Ø To make the intention of I’tikaaf
Ø To perform I’tikaaf in a Masjid where five daily Salaah are performed in congregation. This condition is only for men. As far as women are concerned, their Masjid is the place where they perform the five daily Salaah.
ACTS RECOMMENDED IN I’TIKAAF
Ø To performed I’tikaaf in a Masjid when Jumu’ah Salaah is performed
Ø To recite the Glorious Qur’aan
Ø To perform Nafl Salaah and read Durood and Azkaar
Ø To read and teach religious books
Ø To deliver sermons
Ø To engage oneself in Ibaadah and religious activities
ACTS PERMITTED IN I’TIKAAF
Ø To ear, drink and sleep in the Masjid
Ø To apply Itr-perfume and oil
Ø To buy or sell something of necessity without bring the commodity inside
Ø To get married
FACTORS ALLOWS LEAVING OF
Ø Farz Gusl
Ø Jumu’ah Salaah, if not performed in the Masjid when I’tikaaf is made
ACTS MAKROOH TAHREEMEE IN I’TIKAAF
Ø To keep silent thinking it Ibaadah
Ø To engage oneself in worldly affairs without any extreme necessity
Ø To quarrel or speak nonsense
Ø To trade even without bringing the commodity inside
Ø To bring the commodity inside the Masjid
ACTS INVALIDATE I’TIKAAF
Ø To go out of the place where I’tikaaf without any natural need such as the need of toilet or Shari’yee necessity like having Farz Ghusl and going to perform Jumu’ah Salaah when it is not performed in the place where I’tikaaf is made. If one comes out for the stated needs then he should go back immediately after fulfilling the same. Staying outside unnecessarily even for a single moment will invalidate the I’tikaaf. Attending funeral Salaah, visiting relatives or sick person, having common bath, smoking and similar things are not considered amongst the Shari’yee or natural needs.
Ø To have sexual relation even outside the place of I’tikaaf. Kissing, embracing and all other acts that lead to intercourse are also impermissible in the state of I’tikaaf but will not invalidate the I’tikaaf as long as they do not cause ejaculation.
Ø To come out of the place of I’tikaaf due to fear or disease
RULING ON QAZAA IF I’TIKAAF BREAKS
There is not Qazaa for Nafl I’tikaaf. For it terminates by getting out of the Masjid. Wajid and Sunnah I’tikaaf break by leaving of the Masjid for man or place of I’tikaaf for woman even for a single moment without any natural or Shari’yee necessity. The Qazaa of nullified Wajib or Sunnah I’tikaaf is necessary. In the case of Wajib I’tikaaf, Qazaa of all the days vow has bee made should be performed with observing Sawm whereas only the Qazaa with fast of the day I’tikaaf has been broken should be made in the case of Sunnah I’tikaaf.
I’TIKAAF FOR WOMAN
A woman can observe I’tikaf at the place where she performs the five daily Salaah. If no place is specified for Salaah then I’tikaaf will not be valid. However, if she specifies a place at her home for reading Salaah just before performing I’tikaaf then she can perform I’tikaaf at that place provided that she has got her husband’s consent, if married and parents’ permission if unmarried, and is not in the state of menstruation or post-natal bleeding.
WOMAN OBSERVES MENSES DURING I’TIKAAF
I’tikaaf will be nullified by menses and Qazaa will be Wajib. Therefore, a woman who observes her period during I’tikaaf should leave it and make Qazaa along with the fast of the day she gets her period when she gets Paak.
COOKING FOOD DURING I’TIKAAF
A woman who has no one to cook food for her is permitted to prepare meals at the place where she is performing I’tikaaf.
CHANGING PLACE OF I’TIKAAF
Once a woman specifies a place for I’tikaaf is not allowed to change it.
LEAVING PLACE OF I’TIKAAF
The woman performing I’tikaaf is not allowed to leave the place without any natural need such as the need of toilet or Shari’yee necessity like making Wudhoo when it is broken. If she leaves the place besides the prescribe needs even for a single moment, the I’tikaaf will be void and Qazaa with fast will be Wajib.
LEAVING MASJID FOR TAKING
It is not permitted for the person performing I’tikaaf to leave Masjid for taking a normal bath even on Friday. However, he is allowed to go out for having Farz Gusl.
LEAVING MASJID FOR NORMAL
It is not permitted for the person performing I’tikaaf to leave Masjid for taking normal bath. If he goes, I’tikaaf will be void.
LEAVING MASJID FOR WASHING HANDS
The person performing I’tikaaf is not permitted to go out for washing hands either before or after eating. He can do so using a utensil inside the Masjid. If he leaves Masjid for this reason, I’tikaaf will be broken.
LEAVING MASJID FOR BRUSHING TEETH
The person performing I’tikaaf is not permitted to go out for brushing teeth either with Miswaak or toothbrush.
LEAVING MASJID FOR CUTTING HAIR
It not permitted for the one who performing I’tikaaf to leave the Masjid for getting hair cut. If he does so then the I’tikaaf will be broken.
SITTING IN WUDHOO KHANAA AND WASHING HANDS
The person performing I’tikaaf is permitted to sit in the Wudhoo Khanaa even before Wudhu and wash his hands with soap. Such practice will nullify the I’tikaaf.
STANDING IN WUDHOO KHANAA AND WIPING HANDS
The person performing I’tikaaf is not permitted to sand in the Wudhoo Khanaa after making and wipe his hands with towels. This is amongst the practices that break the I’tikaaf.
LEAVING MASJID FOR MEDICATION
The person performing I’tikaaf goes out for to see a doctor or get medicine. If it is the case of extreme necessity then he will not be sinful otherwise he will be sinful and the I’tikaaf will be void in both the cases.
WAITING FOR TOILET
The person performing I’tikaaf can wait out side for using the toilet in the case when it is busy.
LEAVING MASJID FOR PERFORMING JANAZAH SALAAH
A person performing I’tikaaf is not allowed to leave Masjid for Janazah Salaah. If he attends the Salaah then I’tikaaf will be broken and Qazaa along with fast of that day will be Wajib.
LEAVING MASJID FOR MAKING WUDHOO
The person performing I’tikaaf can go out to make Wudhu other than of Salaah when he is not in the state of Wudhu. But if he is in the state of Wudhu then he won’t be permitted to go out for renewing the Wudhu.
LEAVING MASJID FOR PERFORMING GUSL TO DECEASED
The person performing I’tikaaf should go to perform Gusl to the deceased in the case when there is none to do so but the I’tikaaf will be nullified though the person will not be sinful for breaking the I’tikaaf.
TAKING OFF SHEETS DURING SALAAH
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