The Islamic date (Hijri date) starts after Maghrib
Date = day + night
In Islam, the night precedes the day.
The new hijri date begins with the setting of sun. Hence for e.g. once the sun sets after the 11th day in Ramadhaan, the 12th has already begun.
So, if today is Thursday 3:15 pm then Maghrib begins at 5:00 pm then know from the moment Maghrib time begins on that day, Friday begins.
The Islamic cycle of a day begins with the setting, not the rising of the sun. In countries such as Saudi Arabia, where the Islamic calendar alone is norm, when someone is speaking about going out on Friday night, he means the night that comes before the “day” of Friday.
And since the day starts at maghrib, then its the first of Ramadan. On the last day, we dont pray Taraweeh, and that's because the day (new day) has started at maghrib, so Ramadan is over and Eid has begun. That is also why we start to say the Takbir for Eid after Maghrib of the last day of Ramadan. This is all because the Islamic month is lunar, so the moon we see after Ramadan is that of Eid, so we celebrate Eid, and Ramadan is then officially over.
This information is really crucial to find out the odd nights in the last 10 days of ramadhan for seeking layla-tul-qadr
for e.g the night preceding the 27th day is actually the 27th night
The following fatwa is about the day of the Islamic date, hope you don't confuse.
Q 1: When does the day start according to Islamic calculations? Does it start from the break of the dawn, or after midnight as astronomers count? Please, provide evidence from the Qur'an or the Sunnah.
A: In Islam, the day starts at the break of the second true dawn. Allah (may He be Exalted) states,Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 187 It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fast). until it reads:Surah Al-Baqarah, 2: 187 So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allah has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall. The Prophet (peace be upon him) stated, Bilal pronounces the Adhan at night, so eat and drink (Suhur) until Ibn Umm Maktum pronounces the (second) Adhan.
May Allah grant us success! May peace and blessings be upon our Prophet Muhammad, his family and Companions!
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